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Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Drugs Used to Control COVID-19 and their Effects on the Renin-Angiotensin System and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2.
J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2020; 23:259-277.JP

Abstract

COVID-19 infection is associated with systemic inflammation, and sometimes hyperinflammatory responses with cytokine storm. This plays a major role in COVID-19 severity and poor disease prognosis, even death. Higher levels of inflammatory hallmarks including C-reactive protein, ferritin, D-dimers, and cytokines such as interleukin (IL) -6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) have been reported. Many anti-viral drugs have been tried, but none were proven fully effective. Supportive care and management of the complications that are caused mainly by inflammation might be the key to greater survival rates and shorter hospitalization (e.g., the use of remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, umifenovir (arbidol), oseltamivir, ganciclovir, favipiravir, darunavir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, colchicine, azithromycin, anakinra, canakinumab, tocilizumab, siltuximab, sarilumab, Type 1 interferon, interferon β-1a, interferon α- 2b, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, fedratinib, methylprednisolone and dexamethasone). However, the efficacy of these treatments still needs well-planned clinical trials. In such trials, careful attention must be paid to the duration of the treatment, the onset of beneficial effects, and the severity of the disease, otherwise, the outcomes may still remain inconclusive. Herein, we present a review of the current drugs, which are being used in the management of the disease and their anti-inflammatory properties. We also investigated if these drugs directly interact with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE 2), which is a crucial component of the virus entry to the cells.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Western New England University College of Pharmacy Department of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences.Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32735768

Citation

Gilzad-Kohan, Hamed, and Fakhreddin Jamali. "Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Drugs Used to Control COVID-19 and Their Effects On the Renin-Angiotensin System and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2." Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences : a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Societe Canadienne Des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, vol. 23, 2020, pp. 259-277.
Gilzad-Kohan H, Jamali F. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Drugs Used to Control COVID-19 and their Effects on the Renin-Angiotensin System and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2020;23:259-277.
Gilzad-Kohan, H., & Jamali, F. (2020). Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Drugs Used to Control COVID-19 and their Effects on the Renin-Angiotensin System and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences : a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Societe Canadienne Des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, 23, 259-277. https://doi.org/10.18433/jpps31346
Gilzad-Kohan H, Jamali F. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Drugs Used to Control COVID-19 and Their Effects On the Renin-Angiotensin System and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2020;23:259-277. PubMed PMID: 32735768.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Drugs Used to Control COVID-19 and their Effects on the Renin-Angiotensin System and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2. AU - Gilzad-Kohan,Hamed, AU - Jamali,Fakhreddin, PY - 2020/8/1/entrez PY - 2020/8/1/pubmed PY - 2020/8/11/medline SP - 259 EP - 277 JF - Journal of pharmacy & pharmaceutical sciences : a publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Societe canadienne des sciences pharmaceutiques JO - J Pharm Pharm Sci VL - 23 N2 - COVID-19 infection is associated with systemic inflammation, and sometimes hyperinflammatory responses with cytokine storm. This plays a major role in COVID-19 severity and poor disease prognosis, even death. Higher levels of inflammatory hallmarks including C-reactive protein, ferritin, D-dimers, and cytokines such as interleukin (IL) -6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) have been reported. Many anti-viral drugs have been tried, but none were proven fully effective. Supportive care and management of the complications that are caused mainly by inflammation might be the key to greater survival rates and shorter hospitalization (e.g., the use of remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, umifenovir (arbidol), oseltamivir, ganciclovir, favipiravir, darunavir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, colchicine, azithromycin, anakinra, canakinumab, tocilizumab, siltuximab, sarilumab, Type 1 interferon, interferon β-1a, interferon α- 2b, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, fedratinib, methylprednisolone and dexamethasone). However, the efficacy of these treatments still needs well-planned clinical trials. In such trials, careful attention must be paid to the duration of the treatment, the onset of beneficial effects, and the severity of the disease, otherwise, the outcomes may still remain inconclusive. Herein, we present a review of the current drugs, which are being used in the management of the disease and their anti-inflammatory properties. We also investigated if these drugs directly interact with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE 2), which is a crucial component of the virus entry to the cells. SN - 1482-1826 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32735768/Anti-Inflammatory_Properties_of_Drugs_Used_to_Control_COVID-19_and_their_Effects_on_the_Renin-Angiotensin_System_and_Angiotensin-Converting_Enzyme-2 L2 - https://antibodies.cancer.gov/detail/CPTC-IL6-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -