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A systematic scoping review of ethical issues in mentoring in medical schools.
BMC Med Educ. 2020 Jul 31; 20(1):246.BM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Mentoring provides mentees and mentors with holistic support and research opportunities. Yet, the quality of this support has been called into question amidst suggestions that mentoring is prone to bullying and professional lapses. These concerns jeopardise mentoring's role in medical schools and demand closer scrutiny.

METHODS

To better understand prevailing concerns, a novel approach to systematic scoping reviews (SSR) s is proposed to map prevailing ethical issues in mentoring in an accountable and reproducible manner. Ten members of the research team carried out systematic and independent searches of PubMed, Embase, ERIC, ScienceDirect, Scopus, OpenGrey and Mednar databases. The individual researchers employed 'negotiated consensual validation' to determine the final list of articles to be analysed. The reviewers worked in three independent teams. One team summarised the included articles. The other teams employed independent thematic and content analysis respectively. The findings of the three approaches were compared. The themes from non-evidence based and grey literature were also compared with themes from research driven data.

RESULTS

Four thousand six titles were reviewed and 51 full text articles were included. Findings from thematic and content analyses were similar and reflected the tabulated summaries. The themes/categories identified were ethical concerns, predisposing factors and possible solutions at the mentor and mentee, mentoring relationship and/or host organisation level. Ethical concerns were found to stem from issues such as power differentials and lack of motivation whilst predisposing factors comprised of the mentor's lack of experience and personality conflicts. Possible solutions include better program oversight and the fostering of an effective mentoring environment.

CONCLUSIONS

This structured SSR found that ethical issues in mentoring occur as a result of inconducive mentoring environments. As such, further studies and systematic reviews of mentoring structures, cultures and remediation must follow so as to guide host organisations in their endeavour to improve mentoring in medical schools.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, NUHS Tower Block, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Level 11, Singapore, 119228, Singapore. Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Dr, Singapore, 169610, Singapore.Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, NUHS Tower Block, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Level 11, Singapore, 119228, Singapore. Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Dr, Singapore, 169610, Singapore.Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, NUHS Tower Block, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Level 11, Singapore, 119228, Singapore. Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Dr, Singapore, 169610, Singapore.Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, NUHS Tower Block, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Level 11, Singapore, 119228, Singapore. Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Dr, Singapore, 169610, Singapore.Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, NUHS Tower Block, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Level 11, Singapore, 119228, Singapore. Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Dr, Singapore, 169610, Singapore.Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, NUHS Tower Block, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Level 11, Singapore, 119228, Singapore. Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Dr, Singapore, 169610, Singapore.Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, NUHS Tower Block, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Level 11, Singapore, 119228, Singapore. Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Dr, Singapore, 169610, Singapore.Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, NUHS Tower Block, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Level 11, Singapore, 119228, Singapore. Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Dr, Singapore, 169610, Singapore.Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, NUHS Tower Block, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Level 11, Singapore, 119228, Singapore. Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Dr, Singapore, 169610, Singapore.Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, NUHS Tower Block, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Level 11, Singapore, 119228, Singapore. Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Dr, Singapore, 169610, Singapore.Division of Cancer Education, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Dr, Singapore, 169610, Singapore.Palliative Care Institute Liverpool, Cancer Research Centre, University of Liverpool, 200 London Rd, Liverpool, L3 9TA, UK.Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, NUHS Tower Block, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Level 11, Singapore, 119228, Singapore. lalit.radha-krishna@liverpool.ac.uk. Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Dr, Singapore, 169610, Singapore. lalit.radha-krishna@liverpool.ac.uk. Division of Cancer Education, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Dr, Singapore, 169610, Singapore. lalit.radha-krishna@liverpool.ac.uk. Palliative Care Institute Liverpool, Cancer Research Centre, University of Liverpool, 200 London Rd, Liverpool, L3 9TA, UK. lalit.radha-krishna@liverpool.ac.uk. Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore, 8 College Rd, Singapore, 169857, Singapore. lalit.radha-krishna@liverpool.ac.uk. Centre of Biomedical Ethics, National University of Singapore, Blk MD 11, 10 Medical Drive, #02-03, Singapore, 117597, Singapore. lalit.radha-krishna@liverpool.ac.uk. PalC, The Palliative Care Centre for Excellence in Research and Education, PalC c/o Dover Park Hospice, 10 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore, 308436, Singapore. lalit.radha-krishna@liverpool.ac.uk.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32736552

Citation

Kow, Cheryl Shumin, et al. "A Systematic Scoping Review of Ethical Issues in Mentoring in Medical Schools." BMC Medical Education, vol. 20, no. 1, 2020, p. 246.
Kow CS, Teo YH, Teo YN, et al. A systematic scoping review of ethical issues in mentoring in medical schools. BMC Med Educ. 2020;20(1):246.
Kow, C. S., Teo, Y. H., Teo, Y. N., Chua, K. Z. Y., Quah, E. L. Y., Kamal, N. H. B. A., Tan, L. H. E., Cheong, C. W. S., Ong, Y. T., Tay, K. T., Chiam, M., Mason, S., & Krishna, L. K. R. (2020). A systematic scoping review of ethical issues in mentoring in medical schools. BMC Medical Education, 20(1), 246. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-020-02169-3
Kow CS, et al. A Systematic Scoping Review of Ethical Issues in Mentoring in Medical Schools. BMC Med Educ. 2020 Jul 31;20(1):246. PubMed PMID: 32736552.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A systematic scoping review of ethical issues in mentoring in medical schools. AU - Kow,Cheryl Shumin, AU - Teo,Yao Hao, AU - Teo,Yao Neng, AU - Chua,Keith Zi Yuan, AU - Quah,Elaine Li Ying, AU - Kamal,Nur Haidah Binte Ahmad, AU - Tan,Lorraine Hui En, AU - Cheong,Clarissa Wei Shuen, AU - Ong,Yun Ting, AU - Tay,Kuang Teck, AU - Chiam,Min, AU - Mason,Stephen, AU - Krishna,Lalit Kumar Radha, Y1 - 2020/07/31/ PY - 2020/04/07/received PY - 2020/07/22/accepted PY - 2020/8/2/entrez PY - 2020/8/2/pubmed PY - 2020/8/2/medline KW - Ethical issues in mentoring KW - Mentoring KW - Mentoring abuse KW - Mentoring environment KW - Mentoring in medical schools KW - Mentoring relationships SP - 246 EP - 246 JF - BMC medical education JO - BMC Med Educ VL - 20 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Mentoring provides mentees and mentors with holistic support and research opportunities. Yet, the quality of this support has been called into question amidst suggestions that mentoring is prone to bullying and professional lapses. These concerns jeopardise mentoring's role in medical schools and demand closer scrutiny. METHODS: To better understand prevailing concerns, a novel approach to systematic scoping reviews (SSR) s is proposed to map prevailing ethical issues in mentoring in an accountable and reproducible manner. Ten members of the research team carried out systematic and independent searches of PubMed, Embase, ERIC, ScienceDirect, Scopus, OpenGrey and Mednar databases. The individual researchers employed 'negotiated consensual validation' to determine the final list of articles to be analysed. The reviewers worked in three independent teams. One team summarised the included articles. The other teams employed independent thematic and content analysis respectively. The findings of the three approaches were compared. The themes from non-evidence based and grey literature were also compared with themes from research driven data. RESULTS: Four thousand six titles were reviewed and 51 full text articles were included. Findings from thematic and content analyses were similar and reflected the tabulated summaries. The themes/categories identified were ethical concerns, predisposing factors and possible solutions at the mentor and mentee, mentoring relationship and/or host organisation level. Ethical concerns were found to stem from issues such as power differentials and lack of motivation whilst predisposing factors comprised of the mentor's lack of experience and personality conflicts. Possible solutions include better program oversight and the fostering of an effective mentoring environment. CONCLUSIONS: This structured SSR found that ethical issues in mentoring occur as a result of inconducive mentoring environments. As such, further studies and systematic reviews of mentoring structures, cultures and remediation must follow so as to guide host organisations in their endeavour to improve mentoring in medical schools. SN - 1472-6920 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32736552/A_systematic_scoping_review_of_ethical_issues_in_mentoring_in_medical_schools_ L2 - https://bmcmededuc.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12909-020-02169-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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