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Trunk muscle activity during different types of low weighted squat exercises in normal and forefoot standing conditions.
J Sports Sci. 2020 Dec; 38(24):2774-2781.JS

Abstract

Squats are considered a useful basic exercise for trunk muscle activation. To gain knowledge about trunk muscle activity patterns depending on the barbell position in beginners, we examined squats with low weights in the back, front, and overhead position.

METHODS

Twelve healthy adults (6 women/6 men, age: 29.1 (SD 8.0) y, height: 173.4 (6.9) cm, body mass: 70.1 (9.1) kg) randomly performed the three barbell squats in normal and in forefoot standing. Surface electromyography from external (EO) and internal oblique, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae (ES) was recorded. The centre of pressure path length (CoP) and the motion of the lumbar spine were captured.

RESULTS

The overhead squat revealed the highest percent muscle activity, where EO (p = 0.009) and ES (p = 0.03) showed the greatest activity. Forefoot standing did not change overall trunk muscle activities (.05< Hedges' g <.29, 0.17 < p < 0.95) although longer CoP path length (.45 < g < 1.3, p < 0.05) was measured.

CONCLUSIONS

Squat exercises with low weight are useful to activate trunk muscles. Activity increases with the difficulty of the squat by frontal or overhead loading, but not by standing on the forefoot. The low weighted squat can target well core muscle activity in training with beginners or in rehabilitation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, University of Basel , Basel, Switzerland. School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland , Brisbane, Australia.Department of Interventions Research in Exercise Training, German Sport University Cologne , Cologne, Germany.Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, University of Basel , Basel, Switzerland.School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland , Brisbane, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32746728

Citation

Roth, Ralf, et al. "Trunk Muscle Activity During Different Types of Low Weighted Squat Exercises in Normal and Forefoot Standing Conditions." Journal of Sports Sciences, vol. 38, no. 24, 2020, pp. 2774-2781.
Roth R, Donath L, Faude O, et al. Trunk muscle activity during different types of low weighted squat exercises in normal and forefoot standing conditions. J Sports Sci. 2020;38(24):2774-2781.
Roth, R., Donath, L., Faude, O., & Cresswell, A. G. (2020). Trunk muscle activity during different types of low weighted squat exercises in normal and forefoot standing conditions. Journal of Sports Sciences, 38(24), 2774-2781. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1800358
Roth R, et al. Trunk Muscle Activity During Different Types of Low Weighted Squat Exercises in Normal and Forefoot Standing Conditions. J Sports Sci. 2020;38(24):2774-2781. PubMed PMID: 32746728.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Trunk muscle activity during different types of low weighted squat exercises in normal and forefoot standing conditions. AU - Roth,Ralf, AU - Donath,Lars, AU - Faude,Oliver, AU - Cresswell,Andrew G, Y1 - 2020/08/04/ PY - 2020/8/5/pubmed PY - 2021/2/20/medline PY - 2020/8/5/entrez KW - EMG KW - balance KW - core KW - instability KW - resistance training SP - 2774 EP - 2781 JF - Journal of sports sciences JO - J Sports Sci VL - 38 IS - 24 N2 - : Squats are considered a useful basic exercise for trunk muscle activation. To gain knowledge about trunk muscle activity patterns depending on the barbell position in beginners, we examined squats with low weights in the back, front, and overhead position. METHODS: Twelve healthy adults (6 women/6 men, age: 29.1 (SD 8.0) y, height: 173.4 (6.9) cm, body mass: 70.1 (9.1) kg) randomly performed the three barbell squats in normal and in forefoot standing. Surface electromyography from external (EO) and internal oblique, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae (ES) was recorded. The centre of pressure path length (CoP) and the motion of the lumbar spine were captured. RESULTS: The overhead squat revealed the highest percent muscle activity, where EO (p = 0.009) and ES (p = 0.03) showed the greatest activity. Forefoot standing did not change overall trunk muscle activities (.05< Hedges' g <.29, 0.17 < p < 0.95) although longer CoP path length (.45 < g < 1.3, p < 0.05) was measured. CONCLUSIONS: Squat exercises with low weight are useful to activate trunk muscles. Activity increases with the difficulty of the squat by frontal or overhead loading, but not by standing on the forefoot. The low weighted squat can target well core muscle activity in training with beginners or in rehabilitation. SN - 1466-447X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32746728/Trunk_muscle_activity_during_different_types_of_low_weighted_squat_exercises_in_normal_and_forefoot_standing_conditions_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -