[Replication and transmission mechanisms of highly pathogenic human coronavirus].Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2020 May 25; 49(3):324-339.ZD
The three known highly pathogenic human coronaviruses are severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human highly pathogenic coronaviruses are composed of non-structural proteins, structural proteins, accessory proteins and ribonucleic acid. Viral particles recognize host receptors via spike glycoprotein (S protein), enter host cells by membrane fusion, replicate in host cells through large replication-transcription complexes, and promote proliferation by interfering with and suppressing the host's immune response. Highly pathogenic human coronaviruses are hosted by humans and vertebrates. Viral particles are transmitted through droplets, contact and aerosols or likely through digestive tract, urine, eyes and other routes. This review discusses the mechanisms of replication and transmission of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses providing basis for future studies on interrupting the transmission and pathogenicity of these pathogenic viruses.