Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

ACE2 (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2) in Cardiopulmonary Diseases: Ramifications for the Control of SARS-CoV-2.
Hypertension. 2020 09; 76(3):651-661.H

Abstract

Discovery of ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) revealed that the renin-angiotensin system has 2 counterbalancing arms. ACE2 is a major player in the protective arm, highly expressed in lungs and gut with the ability to mitigate cardiopulmonary diseases such as inflammatory lung disease. ACE2 also exhibits activities involving gut microbiome, nutrition, and as a chaperone stabilizing the neutral amino acid transporter, B0AT1, in gut. But the current interest in ACE2 arises because it is the cell surface receptor for the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, to infect host cells, similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. This suggests that ACE2 be considered harmful, however, because of its important other roles, it is paradoxically a potential therapeutic target for cardiopulmonary diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. This review describes the discovery of ACE2, its physiological functions, and its place in the renin-angiotensin system. It illustrates new analyses of the structure of ACE2 that provides better understanding of its actions particularly in lung and gut, shedding of ACE2 by ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metallopeptidase domain 17 protein), and role of TMPRSS2 (transmembrane serine proteases 2) in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 entry into host cells. Cardiopulmonary diseases are associated with decreased ACE2 activity and the mitigation by increasing ACE2 activity along with its therapeutic relevance are addressed. Finally, the potential use of ACE2 as a treatment target in COVID-19, despite its role to allow viral entry into host cells, is suggested.

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Renal Transplantation, Department of Medicine (R.K.S.), University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville.Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics (B.R.S., E.M.R., M.K.R.), University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville.Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology & Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis (A.G.O.).Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Alabama College of Medicine, Birmingham (M.B.G.).Department of Medicine, University of Alberta College of Medicine, Edmonton, Canada (G.Y.O.).Department of Ophthalmology (Q.L.), University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville.Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics (B.R.S., E.M.R., M.K.R.), University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville.Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (C.J.P.), University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville.Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics (B.R.S., E.M.R., M.K.R.), University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32783758

Citation

Sharma, Ravindra K., et al. "ACE2 (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2) in Cardiopulmonary Diseases: Ramifications for the Control of SARS-CoV-2." Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979), vol. 76, no. 3, 2020, pp. 651-661.
Sharma RK, Stevens BR, Obukhov AG, et al. ACE2 (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2) in Cardiopulmonary Diseases: Ramifications for the Control of SARS-CoV-2. Hypertension. 2020;76(3):651-661.
Sharma, R. K., Stevens, B. R., Obukhov, A. G., Grant, M. B., Oudit, G. Y., Li, Q., Richards, E. M., Pepine, C. J., & Raizada, M. K. (2020). ACE2 (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2) in Cardiopulmonary Diseases: Ramifications for the Control of SARS-CoV-2. Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979), 76(3), 651-661. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15595
Sharma RK, et al. ACE2 (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2) in Cardiopulmonary Diseases: Ramifications for the Control of SARS-CoV-2. Hypertension. 2020;76(3):651-661. PubMed PMID: 32783758.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - ACE2 (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2) in Cardiopulmonary Diseases: Ramifications for the Control of SARS-CoV-2. AU - Sharma,Ravindra K, AU - Stevens,Bruce R, AU - Obukhov,Alexander G, AU - Grant,Maria B, AU - Oudit,Gavin Y, AU - Li,Qiuhong, AU - Richards,Elaine M, AU - Pepine,Carl J, AU - Raizada,Mohan K, Y1 - 2020/08/12/ PY - 2021/09/01/pmc-release PY - 2020/8/14/entrez PY - 2020/8/14/pubmed PY - 2020/8/26/medline KW - COVID-19 KW - angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 KW - brain-gut-lung axis KW - lung disease KW - pulmonary hypertension KW - renin-angiotensin system KW - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 SP - 651 EP - 661 JF - Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) JO - Hypertension VL - 76 IS - 3 N2 - Discovery of ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) revealed that the renin-angiotensin system has 2 counterbalancing arms. ACE2 is a major player in the protective arm, highly expressed in lungs and gut with the ability to mitigate cardiopulmonary diseases such as inflammatory lung disease. ACE2 also exhibits activities involving gut microbiome, nutrition, and as a chaperone stabilizing the neutral amino acid transporter, B0AT1, in gut. But the current interest in ACE2 arises because it is the cell surface receptor for the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, to infect host cells, similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. This suggests that ACE2 be considered harmful, however, because of its important other roles, it is paradoxically a potential therapeutic target for cardiopulmonary diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. This review describes the discovery of ACE2, its physiological functions, and its place in the renin-angiotensin system. It illustrates new analyses of the structure of ACE2 that provides better understanding of its actions particularly in lung and gut, shedding of ACE2 by ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metallopeptidase domain 17 protein), and role of TMPRSS2 (transmembrane serine proteases 2) in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 entry into host cells. Cardiopulmonary diseases are associated with decreased ACE2 activity and the mitigation by increasing ACE2 activity along with its therapeutic relevance are addressed. Finally, the potential use of ACE2 as a treatment target in COVID-19, despite its role to allow viral entry into host cells, is suggested. SN - 1524-4563 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32783758/ACE2__Angiotensin_Converting_Enzyme_2__in_Cardiopulmonary_Diseases:_Ramifications_for_the_Control_of_SARS_CoV_2_ L2 - https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15595?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -