A chemometric approach to characterize the aroma of selected brown and red edible seaweeds / extracts.J Sci Food Agric. 2021 Feb; 101(3):1228-1238.JS
Information pertaining to the aromatic profile of seaweeds and seaweed extracts can provide evidence regarding their potential suitability as ingredients in processed foods. To date only limited material has been available on the volatile profiles of some seaweed species. Others in this study have not previously been described. The volatile profiles of dried brown (Himanthalia elongata, Undaria pinnatifida, Alaria esculenta) and red (Porphyra umbilicalis, Palmaria palmata) seaweeds, and a brown seaweed extract (fucoxanthin) from Laminaria japonica were investigated using a chemometric approach to collate data from volatile gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct sensory aroma evaluation, and gas-chromatography - olfactometry (GC-O) to obtain a better understanding of their volatile profile and sensory perception.
More than 100 volatile compounds were identified by static headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and thermal desorption gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (TD GC-MS). Brown seaweeds were characterized by 'grassy/herbal/floral', 'fruity', and 'fatty' aromas, red seaweeds by 'green/vegetable', 'mushroom/earthy' and 'sweet/buttery' aromas, and the fucoxanthin extract by 'rancid' and 'nutty' aromas with an overall lower intensity. Heptanal appeared to be a major odor-active compound in all samples. Other volatiles were more characteristic of each individual seaweed: hexanal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and 2-pentylfuran for H. elongata; ethyl butanoate and 2,3-butanedione for U. pinnatifida; 6-dimethylpyrazine, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and sulactone for P. palmata; 1-octen-3-ol for P. umbilicalis, heptanone for A. esculenta, and 2-furanmethanol for fucoxanthin.
Brown and red seaweeds had distinct sensory properties with individual seaweeds having differing volatiles and odorants. This study provides additional information that can contribute to the development of products incorporating dried seaweeds / extracts that are more acceptable to the consumer. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.