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The Long Road Toward COVID-19 Herd Immunity: Vaccine Platform Technologies and Mass Immunization Strategies.
Front Immunol. 2020; 11:1817.FI

Abstract

There is an urgent need for effective countermeasures against the current emergence and accelerating expansion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Induction of herd immunity by mass vaccination has been a very successful strategy for preventing the spread of many infectious diseases, hence protecting the most vulnerable population groups unable to develop immunity, for example individuals with immunodeficiencies or a weakened immune system due to underlying medical or debilitating conditions. Therefore, vaccination represents one of the most promising counter-pandemic measures to COVID-19. However, to date, no licensed vaccine exists, neither for SARS-CoV-2 nor for the closely related SARS-CoV or Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV. In addition, a few vaccine candidates have only recently entered human clinical trials, which hampers the progress in tackling COVID-19 infection. Here, we discuss potential prophylactic interventions for SARS-CoV-2 with a focus on the challenges existing for vaccine development, and we review pre-clinical progress and ongoing human clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccine candidates. Although COVID-19 vaccine development is currently accelerated via so-called fast-track programs, vaccines may not be timely available to have an impact on the first wave of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, COVID-19 vaccines will be essential in the future for reducing morbidity and mortality and inducing herd immunity, if SARS-CoV-2 becomes established in the population like for example influenza virus.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32793245

Citation

Frederiksen, Lea Skak Filtenborg, et al. "The Long Road Toward COVID-19 Herd Immunity: Vaccine Platform Technologies and Mass Immunization Strategies." Frontiers in Immunology, vol. 11, 2020, p. 1817.
Frederiksen LSF, Zhang Y, Foged C, et al. The Long Road Toward COVID-19 Herd Immunity: Vaccine Platform Technologies and Mass Immunization Strategies. Front Immunol. 2020;11:1817.
Frederiksen, L. S. F., Zhang, Y., Foged, C., & Thakur, A. (2020). The Long Road Toward COVID-19 Herd Immunity: Vaccine Platform Technologies and Mass Immunization Strategies. Frontiers in Immunology, 11, 1817. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01817
Frederiksen LSF, et al. The Long Road Toward COVID-19 Herd Immunity: Vaccine Platform Technologies and Mass Immunization Strategies. Front Immunol. 2020;11:1817. PubMed PMID: 32793245.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Long Road Toward COVID-19 Herd Immunity: Vaccine Platform Technologies and Mass Immunization Strategies. AU - Frederiksen,Lea Skak Filtenborg, AU - Zhang,Yibang, AU - Foged,Camilla, AU - Thakur,Aneesh, Y1 - 2020/07/21/ PY - 2020/05/09/received PY - 2020/07/07/accepted PY - 2020/8/15/entrez PY - 2020/8/15/pubmed PY - 2020/8/25/medline KW - COVID-19 KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - animal models KW - coronavirus KW - herd immunity KW - immune response KW - immunopathology KW - vaccine SP - 1817 EP - 1817 JF - Frontiers in immunology JO - Front Immunol VL - 11 N2 - There is an urgent need for effective countermeasures against the current emergence and accelerating expansion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Induction of herd immunity by mass vaccination has been a very successful strategy for preventing the spread of many infectious diseases, hence protecting the most vulnerable population groups unable to develop immunity, for example individuals with immunodeficiencies or a weakened immune system due to underlying medical or debilitating conditions. Therefore, vaccination represents one of the most promising counter-pandemic measures to COVID-19. However, to date, no licensed vaccine exists, neither for SARS-CoV-2 nor for the closely related SARS-CoV or Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV. In addition, a few vaccine candidates have only recently entered human clinical trials, which hampers the progress in tackling COVID-19 infection. Here, we discuss potential prophylactic interventions for SARS-CoV-2 with a focus on the challenges existing for vaccine development, and we review pre-clinical progress and ongoing human clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccine candidates. Although COVID-19 vaccine development is currently accelerated via so-called fast-track programs, vaccines may not be timely available to have an impact on the first wave of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, COVID-19 vaccines will be essential in the future for reducing morbidity and mortality and inducing herd immunity, if SARS-CoV-2 becomes established in the population like for example influenza virus. SN - 1664-3224 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32793245/The_Long_Road_Toward_COVID_19_Herd_Immunity:_Vaccine_Platform_Technologies_and_Mass_Immunization_Strategies_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01817 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -