Acceptability of bread made with hemp (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa) flour evaluated fresh and following a partial bake method.J Food Sci. 2020 Sep; 85(9):2915-2922.JF
With an increasing demand for gluten-free foods, there has been an interest in the utilization of nonconventional ingredients to improve the nutritional quality, sensory attributes, and functionality of gluten-free products. Hemp (Cannabis sativa subsp. Sativa) is one of these ingredients that have yet to be thoroughly evaluated. The primary objective of this study was to determine the acceptability and consumers' sensory perceptions of gluten-free bread (GFB) made with hemp flour. The secondary objective was to assess if the acceptability of the bread changes after 45 days of frozen storage following a partial bake method. The first trial (n = 89) instructed participants to assess six fresh bread samples of varying hemp percentages (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%), using check-all-that-apply questionnaire and a 9-point hedonic scale. This procedure was repeated for the second trial (n = 81), which used partially baked bread samples of the same composition. Overall, as the percentage of hemp flour increased, the overall liking of the GFB decreased. The 5% hemp incorporation in the fresh bread and the 15% hemp incorporation or less in the partially baked bread did not significantly differ from the control bread (fresh and partially baked, respectively). Attributes found to drive the liking of bread were smooth (only for the frozen bread), porous, moist, and soft, whereas the attributes that led to disliking were yeasty and dense. In future research, partial baking methods should be varied to assess the optimal freezing and baking ratio that are specific for hemp-based breads. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The gluten-free bread (GFB) made with 5% hemp incorporation was not significantly different from the control and was acceptable to consumers. The partially baking method is a suitable method to be used with GFBs incorporated with hemp as it did not affect the consumer acceptability. Additionally, hemp flour incorporation in partially baked GFB was acceptable up to 15%. Consumers prefer GFB with hemp that possesses smooth, porous, moist, and soft attributes.