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Receptor utilization of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) indicates a narrower host range of SARS-CoV-2 than that of SARS-CoV.
Transbound Emerg Dis. 2021 May; 68(3):1046-1053.TE

Abstract

Coronavirus (CoV) pandemics have become a huge threat to the public health worldwide in the recent decades. Typically, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) caused SARS pandemic in 2003 and SARS-CoV-2 caused the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Both viruses are most likely originated from bats. Thus, direct or indirect inter-species transmission from bats to humans is required for the viruses to cause pandemics. Receptor utilization is a key factor determining the host range of viruses which is critical to the inter-species transmission. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, but only ACE2s of certain animals can be utilized by the viruses. Here, we employed pseudovirus cell-entry assay to evaluate the receptor-utilizing capability of ACE2s of 20 animals by the two viruses and found that SARS-CoV-2 utilized less ACE2s than SARS-CoV, indicating a narrower host range of SARS-CoV-2. Especially, SARS-CoV-2 tended not to use murine or non-mammal ACE2s. Meanwhile, pangolin-CoV, another SARS-related coronavirus highly homologous to SARS-CoV-2 in its genome, yet showed similar ACE2 utilization profile with SARS-CoV rather than SARS-CoV-2. Nevertheless, the actual susceptibility of these animals to the coronaviruses should be further verified by in vivo studies. To clarify the mechanism underlying the receptor utilization, we compared the amino acid sequences of the 20 ACE2s and found 5 amino acid residues potentially critical for ACE2 utilization, including the N-terminal 20th and 42nd amino acid residues that might determine the different receptor utilization of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and pangolin-CoV. Our studies enhance the understanding of receptor utilization of pandemic coronaviruses, potentially contributing to the virus tracing, intermediate host screening and epidemic prevention for pathogenic coronaviruses.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, Institute of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, College of Biology, Hunan University, Changsha, China.Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, Institute of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, College of Biology, Hunan University, Changsha, China.Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, Institute of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, College of Biology, Hunan University, Changsha, China.Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, Institute of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, College of Biology, Hunan University, Changsha, China.Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, Institute of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, College of Biology, Hunan University, Changsha, China.Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, Institute of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, College of Biology, Hunan University, Changsha, China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32794346

Citation

Wang, Qiong, et al. "Receptor Utilization of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) Indicates a Narrower Host Range of SARS-CoV-2 Than That of SARS-CoV." Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, vol. 68, no. 3, 2021, pp. 1046-1053.
Wang Q, Qiu Y, Li JY, et al. Receptor utilization of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) indicates a narrower host range of SARS-CoV-2 than that of SARS-CoV. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2021;68(3):1046-1053.
Wang, Q., Qiu, Y., Li, J. Y., Liao, C. H., Zhou, Z. J., & Ge, X. Y. (2021). Receptor utilization of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) indicates a narrower host range of SARS-CoV-2 than that of SARS-CoV. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 68(3), 1046-1053. https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13792
Wang Q, et al. Receptor Utilization of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) Indicates a Narrower Host Range of SARS-CoV-2 Than That of SARS-CoV. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2021;68(3):1046-1053. PubMed PMID: 32794346.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Receptor utilization of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) indicates a narrower host range of SARS-CoV-2 than that of SARS-CoV. AU - Wang,Qiong, AU - Qiu,Ye, AU - Li,Jin-Yan, AU - Liao,Ce-Heng, AU - Zhou,Zhi-Jian, AU - Ge,Xing-Yi, Y1 - 2020/09/05/ PY - 2020/08/06/revised PY - 2020/06/17/received PY - 2020/08/10/accepted PY - 2020/8/15/pubmed PY - 2021/6/16/medline PY - 2020/8/15/entrez KW - SARS-CoV KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) KW - coronavirus KW - host range KW - inter-species transmission KW - receptor utilization SP - 1046 EP - 1053 JF - Transboundary and emerging diseases JO - Transbound Emerg Dis VL - 68 IS - 3 N2 - Coronavirus (CoV) pandemics have become a huge threat to the public health worldwide in the recent decades. Typically, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) caused SARS pandemic in 2003 and SARS-CoV-2 caused the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Both viruses are most likely originated from bats. Thus, direct or indirect inter-species transmission from bats to humans is required for the viruses to cause pandemics. Receptor utilization is a key factor determining the host range of viruses which is critical to the inter-species transmission. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, but only ACE2s of certain animals can be utilized by the viruses. Here, we employed pseudovirus cell-entry assay to evaluate the receptor-utilizing capability of ACE2s of 20 animals by the two viruses and found that SARS-CoV-2 utilized less ACE2s than SARS-CoV, indicating a narrower host range of SARS-CoV-2. Especially, SARS-CoV-2 tended not to use murine or non-mammal ACE2s. Meanwhile, pangolin-CoV, another SARS-related coronavirus highly homologous to SARS-CoV-2 in its genome, yet showed similar ACE2 utilization profile with SARS-CoV rather than SARS-CoV-2. Nevertheless, the actual susceptibility of these animals to the coronaviruses should be further verified by in vivo studies. To clarify the mechanism underlying the receptor utilization, we compared the amino acid sequences of the 20 ACE2s and found 5 amino acid residues potentially critical for ACE2 utilization, including the N-terminal 20th and 42nd amino acid residues that might determine the different receptor utilization of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and pangolin-CoV. Our studies enhance the understanding of receptor utilization of pandemic coronaviruses, potentially contributing to the virus tracing, intermediate host screening and epidemic prevention for pathogenic coronaviruses. SN - 1865-1682 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32794346/Receptor_utilization_of_angiotensin_converting_enzyme_2__ACE2__indicates_a_narrower_host_range_of_SARS_CoV_2_than_that_of_SARS_CoV_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13792 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -