A novel assessment system of toxicity and stability of CuO nanoparticles via copper super sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants.Toxicol In Vitro. 2020 Dec; 69:104969.TV
CuO nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) toxicity in organisms is contributed mainly through the copper uptake by both the ionic and nanoparticle form. However, the relative uptake ratio and bioavailability of the two different forms is not well known due to a lack of sensitive and effective assessment systems. We developed a series of both copper resistant and hyper sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants to investigate and compare the effects of CuO-NPs and dissolved copper (CuCl2), on the eukaryote with the purpose of quantitating the relative contributions of nanoparticles and dissolved species for Cu uptake. We observed the toxicity of 10 mM CuO-NPs for copper sensitive strains is equal to that of 0.5 mM CuCl2 and the main toxic effect is most likely generated from oxidative stress through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. About 95% CuO-NPs exist in nanoparticle form under neutral environmental conditions. Assessing the cellular metal content of wild type and copper transporter 1(CTR1) knock out cells showed that endocytosis is the major absorption style for CuO-NPs. This study also found a similar toxicity of Ag for both 10 mM Ag-NPs and 0.2 mM AgNO3 in the copper super sensitive strains. Our study revealed the absorption mechanism of soluble metal based nanomaterials CuO-NPs and Ag-NPs as well as provided a sensitive and delicate system to precisely evaluate the toxicity and stability of nanoparticles.