Mechanochemical generation of Schiff bases and Amadori products and utilization of diagnostic MS/MS fragmentation patterns in negative ionization mode for their analysis.Carbohydr Res. 2020 Sep; 495:108091.CR
The use of tandem mass spectrometry under positive ionization mode was previously developed as a tool for distinguishing isomeric Schiff bases and Amadori products. In this paper, similar diagnostic MS/MS fragmentation patterns were identified under negative ionization mode and was utilized to study the composition of mechanochemically generated Maillard reaction mixtures. The major diagnostic ion of the Schiff base was found to be a diose attached to the amino acid residue, while that of the Amadori compound was a triose. The structures of the diagnostic ions were confirmed through isotope labeling technique and elemental composition. Furthermore, application of this technique showed that ball milling of glucose with different amino acids almost exclusively results in the formation of a mixture of Schiff bases and Amadori compounds, and that amino acids with basic side chains generated more Schiff bases and those with acidic side chains generated more Amadori products.