Analysis of accelerated 4D flow MRI in the murine aorta by radial acquisition and compressed sensing reconstruction.NMR Biomed. 2020 Nov; 33(11):e4394.NB
Preclinical 4D flow MRI remains challenging and is restricted for parallel imaging acceleration due to the limited number of available receive channels. A radial acquisition with combined parallel imaging and temporal compressed sensing reconstruction was implemented to achieve accelerated preclinical 4D flow MRI. In order to increase the accuracy of the measured velocities, a quantitative evaluation of different temporal regularization weights for the compressed sensing reconstruction based on velocity instead of magnitude data is performed. A 3D radial retrospectively triggered phase contrast sequence with a combined parallel imaging and compressed sensing reconstruction with temporal regularization was developed. It was validated in a phantom and in vivo (C57BL/6 J mice), against an established fully sampled Cartesian sequence. Different undersampling factors (USFs [12, 15, 20, 30, 60]) were evaluated, and the effect of undersampling was analyzed in detail for magnitude and velocity data. Temporal regularization weights λ were evaluated for different USFs. Acceleration factors of up to 20 compared with full Nyquist sampling were achieved. The peak flow differences compared with the Cartesian measurement were the following: USF 12, 3.38%; USF 15, 4.68%; USF 20, 0.95%. The combination of 3D radial center-out trajectories and compressed sensing reconstruction is robust against motion and flow artifacts and can significantly reduce measurement time to 30 min at a resolution of 180 μm3 . Concisely, radial acquisition with combined compressed sensing and parallel imaging proved to be an excellent method for analyzing complex flow patterns in mice.