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Combined effects of exposure to engineered silver nanoparticles and the water-soluble fraction of crude oil in the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus.
Aquat Toxicol. 2020 Oct; 227:105582.AT

Abstract

While it is likely that ENPs may occur together with other contaminants in nature, the combined effects of exposure to both ENPs and environmental contaminants are not studied sufficiently. In this study, we investigated the acute and sublethal toxicity of PVP coated silver nanoparticles (AgNP) and ionic silver (Ag+; administered as AgNO3) to the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus. We further studied effects of single exposures to AgNPs (nominal concentrations: low 15 μg L-1 NPL, high 150 μg L-1 NPH) or Ag+ (60 μg L-1), and effects of co-exposure to AgNPs, Ag+ and the water-soluble fraction (WSF; 100 μg L-1) of a crude oil (AgNP + WSF; Ag++WSF). The gene expression and the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes SOD, CAT and GST, as well as the gene expression of HSP90 and CYP330A1 were determined as sublethal endpoints. Results show that Ag+ was more acutely toxic compared to AgNPs, with 96 h LC50 concentrations of 403 μg L-1 for AgNPs, and 147 μg L-1 for Ag+. Organismal uptake of Ag following exposure was similar for AgNP and Ag+, and was not significantly different when co-exposed to WSF. Exposure to AgNPs alone caused increases in gene expressions of GST and SOD, whereas WSF exposure caused an induction in SOD. Responses in enzyme activities were generally low, with significant effects observed only on SOD activity in NPL and WSF exposures and on GST activity in NPL and NPH exposures. Combined AgNP and WSF exposures caused slightly altered responses in expression of SOD, GST and CYP330A1 genes compared to the single exposures of either AgNPs or WSF. However, there was no clear pattern of cumulative effects caused by co-exposures of AgNPs and WSF. The present study indicates that the exposure to AgNPs, Ag+, and to a lesser degree WSF cause an oxidative stress response in C. finmarchicus, which was slightly, but mostly not significantly altered in combined exposures. This indicated that the combined effects between Ag and WSF are relatively limited, at least with regard to oxidative stress.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address: julia.farkas@sintef.no.Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.SINTEF Ocean, Environment and New Resources, Trondheim, Norway.Division of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.Department for Bioscience, University of Exeter, UK.Division of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.Division of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.BioTrix, Trondheim, Norway.Physics and Medical Imaging, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon, EX4 4QL, United Kingdom.SINTEF Ocean, Environment and New Resources, Trondheim, Norway.Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32823071

Citation

Farkas, J, et al. "Combined Effects of Exposure to Engineered Silver Nanoparticles and the Water-soluble Fraction of Crude Oil in the Marine Copepod Calanus Finmarchicus." Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), vol. 227, 2020, p. 105582.
Farkas J, Cappadona V, Olsen AJ, et al. Combined effects of exposure to engineered silver nanoparticles and the water-soluble fraction of crude oil in the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Aquat Toxicol. 2020;227:105582.
Farkas, J., Cappadona, V., Olsen, A. J., Hansen, B. H., Posch, W., Ciesielski, T. M., Goodhead, R., Wilflingseder, D., Blatzer, M., Altin, D., Moger, J., Booth, A. M., & Jenssen, B. M. (2020). Combined effects of exposure to engineered silver nanoparticles and the water-soluble fraction of crude oil in the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 227, 105582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105582
Farkas J, et al. Combined Effects of Exposure to Engineered Silver Nanoparticles and the Water-soluble Fraction of Crude Oil in the Marine Copepod Calanus Finmarchicus. Aquat Toxicol. 2020;227:105582. PubMed PMID: 32823071.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Combined effects of exposure to engineered silver nanoparticles and the water-soluble fraction of crude oil in the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus. AU - Farkas,J, AU - Cappadona,V, AU - Olsen,A J, AU - Hansen,B H, AU - Posch,W, AU - Ciesielski,T M, AU - Goodhead,R, AU - Wilflingseder,D, AU - Blatzer,M, AU - Altin,D, AU - Moger,Julian, AU - Booth,A M, AU - Jenssen,B M, Y1 - 2020/07/24/ PY - 2020/04/18/received PY - 2020/07/13/revised PY - 2020/07/18/accepted PY - 2020/8/22/pubmed PY - 2020/10/9/medline PY - 2020/8/22/entrez KW - Bioavailability KW - Mixture toxicity KW - Nanoparticles KW - Oxidative stress KW - Silver SP - 105582 EP - 105582 JF - Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) JO - Aquat Toxicol VL - 227 N2 - While it is likely that ENPs may occur together with other contaminants in nature, the combined effects of exposure to both ENPs and environmental contaminants are not studied sufficiently. In this study, we investigated the acute and sublethal toxicity of PVP coated silver nanoparticles (AgNP) and ionic silver (Ag+; administered as AgNO3) to the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus. We further studied effects of single exposures to AgNPs (nominal concentrations: low 15 μg L-1 NPL, high 150 μg L-1 NPH) or Ag+ (60 μg L-1), and effects of co-exposure to AgNPs, Ag+ and the water-soluble fraction (WSF; 100 μg L-1) of a crude oil (AgNP + WSF; Ag++WSF). The gene expression and the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes SOD, CAT and GST, as well as the gene expression of HSP90 and CYP330A1 were determined as sublethal endpoints. Results show that Ag+ was more acutely toxic compared to AgNPs, with 96 h LC50 concentrations of 403 μg L-1 for AgNPs, and 147 μg L-1 for Ag+. Organismal uptake of Ag following exposure was similar for AgNP and Ag+, and was not significantly different when co-exposed to WSF. Exposure to AgNPs alone caused increases in gene expressions of GST and SOD, whereas WSF exposure caused an induction in SOD. Responses in enzyme activities were generally low, with significant effects observed only on SOD activity in NPL and WSF exposures and on GST activity in NPL and NPH exposures. Combined AgNP and WSF exposures caused slightly altered responses in expression of SOD, GST and CYP330A1 genes compared to the single exposures of either AgNPs or WSF. However, there was no clear pattern of cumulative effects caused by co-exposures of AgNPs and WSF. The present study indicates that the exposure to AgNPs, Ag+, and to a lesser degree WSF cause an oxidative stress response in C. finmarchicus, which was slightly, but mostly not significantly altered in combined exposures. This indicated that the combined effects between Ag and WSF are relatively limited, at least with regard to oxidative stress. SN - 1879-1514 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32823071/Combined_effects_of_exposure_to_engineered_silver_nanoparticles_and_the_water_soluble_fraction_of_crude_oil_in_the_marine_copepod_Calanus_finmarchicus_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0166-445X(20)30332-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -