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Prevalence and molecular characterization of ticks and tick-borne pathogens of one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Nigeria.
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Aug 24; 13(1):428.PV

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Ticks are hematophagous arthropods responsible for maintenance and transmission of several pathogens of veterinary and medical importance. Current knowledge on species diversity and pathogens transmitted by ticks infesting camels in Nigeria is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to unravel the status of ticks and tick-borne pathogens of camels in Nigeria.

METHODS

Blood samples (n = 176) and adult ticks (n = 593) were collected from one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) of both sexes in three locations (Kano, Jigawa and Sokoto states) in north-western Nigeria and screened for the presence of Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma spp. and Coxiella-like organisms using molecular techniques. All ticks were identified to species level using a combination of morphological and molecular methods.

RESULTS

Ticks comprised the three genera Hyalomma, Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus. Hyalomma dromedarii was the most frequently detected tick species (n = 465; 78.4%) while Amblyomma variegatum (n = 1; 0.2%) and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (n = 1; 0.2%) were less frequent. Other tick species included H. truncatum (n = 87; 14.7%), H. rufipes (n = 19; 3.2%), H. impeltatum (n = 18; 3.0%) and H. impressum (n = 2; 0.3%). The minimum infection rates of tick-borne pathogens in 231 tick pools included Rickettsia aeschlimannii (n = 51; 8.6%); Babesia species, (n = 4; 0.7%) comprising of B. occultans (n = 2), B. caballi (n = 1) and Babesia sp. (n = 1); Coxiella burnetii (n = 17; 2.9%); and endosymbionts in ticks (n = 62; 10.5%). We detected DNA of "Candidatus Anaplasma camelli" in 40.3% of the blood samples of camels. Other tick-borne pathogens including Anaplasma marginale were not detected. Analysis of risk factors associated with both tick infestation and infection with Anaplasma spp. in the blood indicated that age and body condition scores of the camels were significant (P < 0.05) risk factors while gender was not.

CONCLUSIONS

This study reports low to moderate prevalence rates of selected tick-borne pathogens associated with camels and their ticks in north-western Nigeria. The presence of zoonotic R. aeschlimannii emphasizes the need for a concerted tick control programme in Nigeria.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Infectology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa. Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, University of Maiduguri, P. M. B. 1069, Maiduguri, 600230, Nigeria.Institute of Infectology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.Institute of Infectology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.Institute of Infectology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.Institute of Infectology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.Institute of Infectology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, University of Maiduguri, P. M. B. 1069, Maiduguri, 600230, Nigeria.Parasitology Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa.Institute of Infectology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. cornelia.silaghi@fli.de. Department of Biology, University of Greifswald, Domstrasse 11, 17489, Greifswald, Germany. cornelia.silaghi@fli.de.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32838795

Citation

Onyiche, ThankGod E., et al. "Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Ticks and Tick-borne Pathogens of One-humped Camels (Camelus Dromedarius) in Nigeria." Parasites & Vectors, vol. 13, no. 1, 2020, p. 428.
Onyiche TE, Răileanu C, Tauchmann O, et al. Prevalence and molecular characterization of ticks and tick-borne pathogens of one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Nigeria. Parasit Vectors. 2020;13(1):428.
Onyiche, T. E., Răileanu, C., Tauchmann, O., Fischer, S., Vasić, A., Schäfer, M., Biu, A. A., Ogo, N. I., Thekisoe, O., & Silaghi, C. (2020). Prevalence and molecular characterization of ticks and tick-borne pathogens of one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Nigeria. Parasites & Vectors, 13(1), 428. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04272-2
Onyiche TE, et al. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Ticks and Tick-borne Pathogens of One-humped Camels (Camelus Dromedarius) in Nigeria. Parasit Vectors. 2020 Aug 24;13(1):428. PubMed PMID: 32838795.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prevalence and molecular characterization of ticks and tick-borne pathogens of one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Nigeria. AU - Onyiche,ThankGod E, AU - Răileanu,Cristian, AU - Tauchmann,Oliver, AU - Fischer,Susanne, AU - Vasić,Ana, AU - Schäfer,Mandy, AU - Biu,Abdullahi A, AU - Ogo,Ndudim I, AU - Thekisoe,Oriel, AU - Silaghi,Cornelia, Y1 - 2020/08/24/ PY - 2020/03/10/received PY - 2020/07/30/accepted PY - 2020/8/26/entrez PY - 2020/8/26/pubmed PY - 2020/8/26/medline KW - Camels KW - Nigeria KW - Piroplasms KW - Tick-borne pathogens KW - Ticks KW - “Candidatus Anaplasma camelli” SP - 428 EP - 428 JF - Parasites & vectors JO - Parasit Vectors VL - 13 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Ticks are hematophagous arthropods responsible for maintenance and transmission of several pathogens of veterinary and medical importance. Current knowledge on species diversity and pathogens transmitted by ticks infesting camels in Nigeria is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to unravel the status of ticks and tick-borne pathogens of camels in Nigeria. METHODS: Blood samples (n = 176) and adult ticks (n = 593) were collected from one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) of both sexes in three locations (Kano, Jigawa and Sokoto states) in north-western Nigeria and screened for the presence of Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma spp. and Coxiella-like organisms using molecular techniques. All ticks were identified to species level using a combination of morphological and molecular methods. RESULTS: Ticks comprised the three genera Hyalomma, Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus. Hyalomma dromedarii was the most frequently detected tick species (n = 465; 78.4%) while Amblyomma variegatum (n = 1; 0.2%) and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (n = 1; 0.2%) were less frequent. Other tick species included H. truncatum (n = 87; 14.7%), H. rufipes (n = 19; 3.2%), H. impeltatum (n = 18; 3.0%) and H. impressum (n = 2; 0.3%). The minimum infection rates of tick-borne pathogens in 231 tick pools included Rickettsia aeschlimannii (n = 51; 8.6%); Babesia species, (n = 4; 0.7%) comprising of B. occultans (n = 2), B. caballi (n = 1) and Babesia sp. (n = 1); Coxiella burnetii (n = 17; 2.9%); and endosymbionts in ticks (n = 62; 10.5%). We detected DNA of "Candidatus Anaplasma camelli" in 40.3% of the blood samples of camels. Other tick-borne pathogens including Anaplasma marginale were not detected. Analysis of risk factors associated with both tick infestation and infection with Anaplasma spp. in the blood indicated that age and body condition scores of the camels were significant (P < 0.05) risk factors while gender was not. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports low to moderate prevalence rates of selected tick-borne pathogens associated with camels and their ticks in north-western Nigeria. The presence of zoonotic R. aeschlimannii emphasizes the need for a concerted tick control programme in Nigeria. SN - 1756-3305 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32838795/Prevalence_and_molecular_characterization_of_ticks_and_tick_borne_pathogens_of_one_humped_camels__Camelus_dromedarius__in_Nigeria_ L2 - https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-020-04272-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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