Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Citicoline for treating people with acute ischemic stroke.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 08 29; 8:CD013066.CD

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Stroke is one of the leading causes of long-lasting disability and mortality and its global burden has increased in the past two decades. Several therapies have been proposed for the recovery from, and treatment of, ischemic stroke. One of them is citicoline. This review assessed the benefits and harms of citicoline for treating patients with acute ischemic stroke.

OBJECTIVES

To assess the clinical benefits and harms of citicoline compared with placebo or any other control for treating people with acute ischemic stroke.

SEARCH METHODS

We searched in the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, LILACS until 29 January 2020. We searched the World Health Organization Clinical Trials Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. Additionally, we also reviewed reference lists of the retrieved publications and review articles, and searched the websites of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA).

SELECTION CRITERIA

We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in any setting including participants with acute ischemic stroke. Trials were eligible for inclusion if they compared citicoline versus placebo or no intervention.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

We selected RCTs, assessed the risk of bias in seven domains, and extracted data by duplicate. Our primary outcomes of interest were all-cause mortality and the degree of disability or dependence in daily activities at 90 days. We estimated risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using the I² statistic. We conducted our analyses using the fixed-effect and random-effects model meta-analyses. We assessed the overall quality of evidence for six pre-specified outcomes using the GRADE approach.

MAIN RESULTS

We identified 10 RCTs including 4281 participants. In all these trials, citicoline was given either orally, intravenously, or a combination of both compared with placebo or standard care therapy. Citicoline doses ranged between 500 mg and 2000 mg per day. We assessed all the included trials as having high risk of bias. Drug companies sponsored six trials. A pooled analysis of eight trials indicates there may be little or no difference in all-cause mortality comparing citicoline with placebo (17.3% versus 18.5%; RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.07; I² = 0%; low-quality evidence due to risk of bias). Four trials found no difference in the proportion of patients with disability or dependence in daily activities according to the Rankin scale comparing citicoline with placebo (21.72% versus 19.23%; RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.26; I² = 1%; low-quality evidence due to risk of bias). Meta-analysis of three trials indicates there may be little or no difference in serious cardiovascular adverse events comparing citicoline with placebo (8.83% versus 7.77%; RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.29; I² = 0%; low-quality evidence due to risk of bias). Overall, either serious or non-serious adverse events - central nervous system, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, etc. - were poorly reported and harms may have been underestimated. Four trials assessing functional recovery with the Barthel Index at a cut-off point of 95 points or more did not find differences comparing citicoline with placebo (32.78% versus 30.70%; RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.13; I² = 24%; low-quality evidence due to risk of bias). There were no differences in neurological function (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at a cut-off point of ≤ 1 points) comparing citicoline with placebo according to five trials (24.31% versus 22.44%; RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.21; I² = 27%, low-quality evidence due to risk of bias). A pre-planned Trial Sequential Analysis suggested that no more trials may be needed for the primary outcomes but no trial provided information on quality of life.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS

This review assessed the clinical benefits and harms of citicoline compared with placebo or any other standard treatment for people with acute ischemic stroke. The findings of the review suggest there may be little to no difference between citicoline and its controls regarding all-cause mortality, disability or dependence in daily activities, severe adverse events, functional recovery and the assessment of the neurological function, based on low-certainty evidence. None of the included trials assessed quality of life and the safety profile of citicoline remains unknown. The available evidence is of low quality due to either limitations in the design or execution of the trials.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud Eugenio Espejo, Universidad UTE (Cochrane Ecuador), Quito, Ecuador. School of Medicine, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria (Cochrane Madrid), Madrid, Spain.Iberoamerican Cochrane Centre, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), Barcelona, Spain.Department of Family Medicine, Northwell Health Southside Hospital, Bay Shore, New York, USA.Iberoamerican Cochrane Centre, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona, Spain.Unitat de Malalties Vasculars Cerebrals - Stroke Unit, Servei De Neurologia - Department of Neurology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.Iberoamerican Cochrane Centre, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona, Spain.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32860632

Citation

Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J., et al. "Citicoline for Treating People With Acute Ischemic Stroke." The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 8, 2020, p. CD013066.
Martí-Carvajal AJ, Valli C, Martí-Amarista CE, et al. Citicoline for treating people with acute ischemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;8:CD013066.
Martí-Carvajal, A. J., Valli, C., Martí-Amarista, C. E., Solà, I., Martí-Fàbregas, J., & Bonfill Cosp, X. (2020). Citicoline for treating people with acute ischemic stroke. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 8, CD013066. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013066.pub2
Martí-Carvajal AJ, et al. Citicoline for Treating People With Acute Ischemic Stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 08 29;8:CD013066. PubMed PMID: 32860632.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Citicoline for treating people with acute ischemic stroke. AU - Martí-Carvajal,Arturo J, AU - Valli,Claudia, AU - Martí-Amarista,Cristina Elena, AU - Solà,Ivan, AU - Martí-Fàbregas,Joan, AU - Bonfill Cosp,Xavier, Y1 - 2020/08/29/ PY - 2020/8/30/entrez PY - 2020/8/30/pubmed PY - 2020/10/21/medline SP - CD013066 EP - CD013066 JF - The Cochrane database of systematic reviews JO - Cochrane Database Syst Rev VL - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND: Stroke is one of the leading causes of long-lasting disability and mortality and its global burden has increased in the past two decades. Several therapies have been proposed for the recovery from, and treatment of, ischemic stroke. One of them is citicoline. This review assessed the benefits and harms of citicoline for treating patients with acute ischemic stroke. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical benefits and harms of citicoline compared with placebo or any other control for treating people with acute ischemic stroke. SEARCH METHODS: We searched in the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, LILACS until 29 January 2020. We searched the World Health Organization Clinical Trials Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. Additionally, we also reviewed reference lists of the retrieved publications and review articles, and searched the websites of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in any setting including participants with acute ischemic stroke. Trials were eligible for inclusion if they compared citicoline versus placebo or no intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We selected RCTs, assessed the risk of bias in seven domains, and extracted data by duplicate. Our primary outcomes of interest were all-cause mortality and the degree of disability or dependence in daily activities at 90 days. We estimated risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using the I² statistic. We conducted our analyses using the fixed-effect and random-effects model meta-analyses. We assessed the overall quality of evidence for six pre-specified outcomes using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 10 RCTs including 4281 participants. In all these trials, citicoline was given either orally, intravenously, or a combination of both compared with placebo or standard care therapy. Citicoline doses ranged between 500 mg and 2000 mg per day. We assessed all the included trials as having high risk of bias. Drug companies sponsored six trials. A pooled analysis of eight trials indicates there may be little or no difference in all-cause mortality comparing citicoline with placebo (17.3% versus 18.5%; RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.07; I² = 0%; low-quality evidence due to risk of bias). Four trials found no difference in the proportion of patients with disability or dependence in daily activities according to the Rankin scale comparing citicoline with placebo (21.72% versus 19.23%; RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.26; I² = 1%; low-quality evidence due to risk of bias). Meta-analysis of three trials indicates there may be little or no difference in serious cardiovascular adverse events comparing citicoline with placebo (8.83% versus 7.77%; RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.29; I² = 0%; low-quality evidence due to risk of bias). Overall, either serious or non-serious adverse events - central nervous system, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, etc. - were poorly reported and harms may have been underestimated. Four trials assessing functional recovery with the Barthel Index at a cut-off point of 95 points or more did not find differences comparing citicoline with placebo (32.78% versus 30.70%; RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.13; I² = 24%; low-quality evidence due to risk of bias). There were no differences in neurological function (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at a cut-off point of ≤ 1 points) comparing citicoline with placebo according to five trials (24.31% versus 22.44%; RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.21; I² = 27%, low-quality evidence due to risk of bias). A pre-planned Trial Sequential Analysis suggested that no more trials may be needed for the primary outcomes but no trial provided information on quality of life. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review assessed the clinical benefits and harms of citicoline compared with placebo or any other standard treatment for people with acute ischemic stroke. The findings of the review suggest there may be little to no difference between citicoline and its controls regarding all-cause mortality, disability or dependence in daily activities, severe adverse events, functional recovery and the assessment of the neurological function, based on low-certainty evidence. None of the included trials assessed quality of life and the safety profile of citicoline remains unknown. The available evidence is of low quality due to either limitations in the design or execution of the trials. SN - 1469-493X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32860632/Citicoline_for_treating_people_with_acute_ischemic_stroke_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013066.pub2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -