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Psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines.
J Affect Disord. 2020 12 01; 277:379-391.JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic poses a threat to societies' mental health. This study examined the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and identified the factors contributing to psychological impact in the Philippines.

METHODS

A total of 1879 completed online surveys were gathered from March 28-April 12, 2020. Collected data included socio-demographics, health status, contact history, COVID-19 knowledge and concerns, precautionary measures, information needs, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) ratings.

RESULTS

The IES-R mean score was 19.57 (SD=13.12) while the DASS-21 mean score was 25.94 (SD=20.59). In total, 16.3% of respondents rated the psychological impact of the outbreak as moderate-to-severe; 16.9% reported moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms; 28.8% had moderate-to-severe anxiety levels; and 13.4% had moderate-to-severe stress levels. Female gender; youth age; single status; students; specific symptoms; recent imposed quarantine; prolonged home-stay; and reports of poor health status, unnecessary worry, concerns for family members, and discrimination were significantly associated with greater psychological impact of the pandemic and higher levels of stress, anxiety and depression (p<0.05). Adequate health information, having grown-up children, perception of good health status and confidence in doctors' abilities were significantly associated with lesser psychological impact of the pandemic and lower levels of stress, anxiety and depression (p<0.05).

LIMITATIONS

An English online survey was used.

CONCLUSION

During the early phase of the pandemic in the Philippines, one-fourth of respondents reported moderate-to-severe anxiety and one-sixth reported moderate-to-severe depression and psychological impact. The factors identified can be used to devise effective psychological support strategies.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Manila, Taft Avenue, Manila 1000, Philippines; Philippine One Health University Network. Electronic address: mltee@up.edu.ph.Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Manila, Taft Avenue, Manila 1000, Philippines. Electronic address: catee@up.edu.ph.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Manila, Taft Avenue, Manila 1000, Philippines.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Manila, Taft Avenue, Manila 1000, Philippines.School of Statistics, University of the Philippines Diliman, Philippines.South East Asia One Health University Network. Electronic address: vipat@seaohun.org.Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge 119228, Singapore. Electronic address: pcmrhcm@nus.edu.sg.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32861839

Citation

Tee, Michael L., et al. "Psychological Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic in the Philippines." Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 277, 2020, pp. 379-391.
Tee ML, Tee CA, Anlacan JP, et al. Psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines. J Affect Disord. 2020;277:379-391.
Tee, M. L., Tee, C. A., Anlacan, J. P., Aligam, K. J. G., Reyes, P. W. C., Kuruchittham, V., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines. Journal of Affective Disorders, 277, 379-391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.08.043
Tee ML, et al. Psychological Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic in the Philippines. J Affect Disord. 2020 12 1;277:379-391. PubMed PMID: 32861839.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines. AU - Tee,Michael L, AU - Tee,Cherica A, AU - Anlacan,Joseph P, AU - Aligam,Katrina Joy G, AU - Reyes,Patrick Wincy C, AU - Kuruchittham,Vipat, AU - Ho,Roger C, Y1 - 2020/08/24/ PY - 2020/05/02/received PY - 2020/08/14/revised PY - 2020/08/18/accepted PY - 2020/8/31/pubmed PY - 2020/10/27/medline PY - 2020/8/31/entrez KW - Anxiety KW - COVID-19 KW - Depression KW - Philippines KW - Psychological impact KW - Stress SP - 379 EP - 391 JF - Journal of affective disorders JO - J Affect Disord VL - 277 N2 - BACKGROUND: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic poses a threat to societies' mental health. This study examined the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and identified the factors contributing to psychological impact in the Philippines. METHODS: A total of 1879 completed online surveys were gathered from March 28-April 12, 2020. Collected data included socio-demographics, health status, contact history, COVID-19 knowledge and concerns, precautionary measures, information needs, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) ratings. RESULTS: The IES-R mean score was 19.57 (SD=13.12) while the DASS-21 mean score was 25.94 (SD=20.59). In total, 16.3% of respondents rated the psychological impact of the outbreak as moderate-to-severe; 16.9% reported moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms; 28.8% had moderate-to-severe anxiety levels; and 13.4% had moderate-to-severe stress levels. Female gender; youth age; single status; students; specific symptoms; recent imposed quarantine; prolonged home-stay; and reports of poor health status, unnecessary worry, concerns for family members, and discrimination were significantly associated with greater psychological impact of the pandemic and higher levels of stress, anxiety and depression (p<0.05). Adequate health information, having grown-up children, perception of good health status and confidence in doctors' abilities were significantly associated with lesser psychological impact of the pandemic and lower levels of stress, anxiety and depression (p<0.05). LIMITATIONS: An English online survey was used. CONCLUSION: During the early phase of the pandemic in the Philippines, one-fourth of respondents reported moderate-to-severe anxiety and one-sixth reported moderate-to-severe depression and psychological impact. The factors identified can be used to devise effective psychological support strategies. SN - 1573-2517 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32861839/Psychological_impact_of_COVID_19_pandemic_in_the_Philippines_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165-0327(20)32649-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -