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Startle during backward evaluative conditioning is not modulated by instructions.
Psychophysiology. 2020 12; 57(12):e13679.P

Abstract

Instructions highlighting that backward conditional stimuli (CSs) stop unconditional stimuli (USs) result in their acquiring valence opposite to that of the US on explicit measures of valence. We assessed whether such instructions would influence startle blink modulation in the same way. Two groups were presented with concurrent forward and backward evaluative conditioning (CS-US-CS) using cartoon aliens as CSs, and pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant sounds as USs. Startle magnitude was measured during conditioning and valence ratings were assessed after conditioning. Participants in the "start-stop" instructions group (n = 41) were instructed to learn whether CSs started or stopped US presentations, while participants in the "observe" instructions group (n = 41) were told to pay attention to the stimuli as they would be asked questions about them after the experiment. In the start-stop instructions group backward CSs paired with positive USs were rated as less pleasant than backward CSs paired with neutral and negative USs (contrast effect), whereas ratings of backward CSs did not differ in the observe instructions group. Startle magnitude was larger during backward CSs paired with positive USs in comparison to CSs paired with neutral or negative USs in both instruction groups. Startle blink modulation was unaffected by instructions, suggesting that startle indexes the emotional state at the time of probe presentation rather than CS valence based on propositional information about the function of the CS.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Psychology, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.School of Psychology, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.School of Psychology, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32870509

Citation

Green, Luke J S., et al. "Startle During Backward Evaluative Conditioning Is Not Modulated By Instructions." Psychophysiology, vol. 57, no. 12, 2020, pp. e13679.
Green LJS, Luck CC, Lipp OV. Startle during backward evaluative conditioning is not modulated by instructions. Psychophysiology. 2020;57(12):e13679.
Green, L. J. S., Luck, C. C., & Lipp, O. V. (2020). Startle during backward evaluative conditioning is not modulated by instructions. Psychophysiology, 57(12), e13679. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13679
Green LJS, Luck CC, Lipp OV. Startle During Backward Evaluative Conditioning Is Not Modulated By Instructions. Psychophysiology. 2020;57(12):e13679. PubMed PMID: 32870509.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Startle during backward evaluative conditioning is not modulated by instructions. AU - Green,Luke J S, AU - Luck,Camilla C, AU - Lipp,Ottmar V, Y1 - 2020/09/01/ PY - 2020/05/29/received PY - 2020/08/04/revised PY - 2020/08/06/accepted PY - 2020/9/2/pubmed PY - 2020/9/2/medline PY - 2020/9/2/entrez KW - Evaluative conditioning KW - attitudes KW - backward conditioning KW - propositional learning KW - startle blink KW - startle modulation SP - e13679 EP - e13679 JF - Psychophysiology JO - Psychophysiology VL - 57 IS - 12 N2 - Instructions highlighting that backward conditional stimuli (CSs) stop unconditional stimuli (USs) result in their acquiring valence opposite to that of the US on explicit measures of valence. We assessed whether such instructions would influence startle blink modulation in the same way. Two groups were presented with concurrent forward and backward evaluative conditioning (CS-US-CS) using cartoon aliens as CSs, and pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant sounds as USs. Startle magnitude was measured during conditioning and valence ratings were assessed after conditioning. Participants in the "start-stop" instructions group (n = 41) were instructed to learn whether CSs started or stopped US presentations, while participants in the "observe" instructions group (n = 41) were told to pay attention to the stimuli as they would be asked questions about them after the experiment. In the start-stop instructions group backward CSs paired with positive USs were rated as less pleasant than backward CSs paired with neutral and negative USs (contrast effect), whereas ratings of backward CSs did not differ in the observe instructions group. Startle magnitude was larger during backward CSs paired with positive USs in comparison to CSs paired with neutral or negative USs in both instruction groups. Startle blink modulation was unaffected by instructions, suggesting that startle indexes the emotional state at the time of probe presentation rather than CS valence based on propositional information about the function of the CS. SN - 1540-5958 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32870509/Startle_during_backward_evaluative_conditioning_is_not_modulated_by_instructions_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13679 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -