Difference in levels of SARS-CoV-2 S1 and S2 subunits- and nucleocapsid protein-reactive SIgM/IgM, IgG and SIgA/IgA antibodies in human milk.J Perinatol. 2021 04; 41(4):850-859.JP
This study evaluated the presence and the levels of antibodies reactive to SARS-CoV-2 S1 and S2 subunits (S1 + S2), and nucleocapsid protein.
The levels of SARS-CoV-2 S1 + S2- and nucleocapsid-reactive SIgM/IgM, IgG and SIgA/IgA were measured in human milk samples from 41 women during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-HM) and from 16 women 2 years prior to the outbreak (2018-HM).
SARS-CoV-2 S1 + S2-reactive SIgA/IgA, SIgM/IgM and IgG were detected in 97.6%, 68.3% and 58.5% in human milk whereas nucleocapsid-reactive antibodies were detected in 56.4%, 87.2% and 46.2%, respectively. S1 + S2-reactive IgG was higher in milk from women that had symptoms of viral respiratory infection(s) during the last year than in milk from women without symptom. S1 + S2- and nucleocapsid-reactive IgG were higher in the 2020-HM group compared to the 2018-HM group.
The presence of SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies in human milk could provide passive immunity to breastfed infants and protect them against COVID-19 diseases.