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An exploratory investigation of the impact of 'fast' and 'feed' days during intermittent energy restriction on free-living energy balance behaviours and subjective states in women with overweight/obesity.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2021 03; 75(3):430-437.EJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES

This controlled-feeding randomised controlled trial examined free-living appetite and physical activity (PA) on 'fast' and 'feed' days during intermittent energy restriction (IER), compared to continuous energy restriction (CER).

SUBJECTS/METHODS

Forty-six women with overweight/obesity (age = 35 ± 10 years, BMI = 29.1 ± 2.3 kg/m2) were randomised to IER (n = 24; alternate fast days at 25% energy requirements and ad libitum feed days) or CER (n = 22; 75% energy requirements daily) to ≥5% weight loss (WL) or up to 12 weeks. Self-reported energy intake (EI; online food record), objectively measured PA (SenseWear Armband) and retrospective daily hunger and food cravings were measured over 7 days at baseline, week 2 and final week. Intent-to-treat analyses were performed using linear mixed models.

RESULTS

Final WL (MΔ = 4.7 [95% confidence interval 4.2, 5.2] kg, 5.9%) did not differ between IER and CER (interaction P = 0.307). During IER, feed-day EI did not differ from baseline and was lower in the final week compared to week 2 (MΔ = 295 [81, 509] kcal, P = 0.004). Daily hunger was greater on fast compared to feed days (MΔ = 15 [10, 21] mm, P < 0.001), but food cravings did not differ. Light PA was lower on fast relative to feed days (MΔ = 18 [2, 34] min/day, P = 0.024), with no other differences in PA. Compared to CER, IER increased hunger and led to smaller improvements in craving control (both interactions P ≤ 0.034).

CONCLUSIONS

IER fast days were associated with increased free-living hunger and lower light PA compared to feed days, but had no impact on food cravings or self-reported ad libitum daily EI. IER may be less favourable than CER for the free-living day-to-day control of hunger and food cravings.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. k.beaulieu@leeds.ac.uk.School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.School of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.School of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.School of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32873926

Citation

Beaulieu, Kristine, et al. "An Exploratory Investigation of the Impact of 'fast' and 'feed' Days During Intermittent Energy Restriction On Free-living Energy Balance Behaviours and Subjective States in Women With Overweight/obesity." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 75, no. 3, 2021, pp. 430-437.
Beaulieu K, Casanova N, Oustric P, et al. An exploratory investigation of the impact of 'fast' and 'feed' days during intermittent energy restriction on free-living energy balance behaviours and subjective states in women with overweight/obesity. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2021;75(3):430-437.
Beaulieu, K., Casanova, N., Oustric, P., Hopkins, M., Varady, K., Finlayson, G., & Gibbons, C. (2021). An exploratory investigation of the impact of 'fast' and 'feed' days during intermittent energy restriction on free-living energy balance behaviours and subjective states in women with overweight/obesity. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 75(3), 430-437. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-00740-1
Beaulieu K, et al. An Exploratory Investigation of the Impact of 'fast' and 'feed' Days During Intermittent Energy Restriction On Free-living Energy Balance Behaviours and Subjective States in Women With Overweight/obesity. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2021;75(3):430-437. PubMed PMID: 32873926.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - An exploratory investigation of the impact of 'fast' and 'feed' days during intermittent energy restriction on free-living energy balance behaviours and subjective states in women with overweight/obesity. AU - Beaulieu,Kristine, AU - Casanova,Nuno, AU - Oustric,Pauline, AU - Hopkins,Mark, AU - Varady,Krista, AU - Finlayson,Graham, AU - Gibbons,Catherine, Y1 - 2020/09/01/ PY - 2020/05/13/received PY - 2020/08/25/accepted PY - 2020/08/07/revised PY - 2020/9/3/pubmed PY - 2021/7/8/medline PY - 2020/9/3/entrez SP - 430 EP - 437 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 75 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This controlled-feeding randomised controlled trial examined free-living appetite and physical activity (PA) on 'fast' and 'feed' days during intermittent energy restriction (IER), compared to continuous energy restriction (CER). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Forty-six women with overweight/obesity (age = 35 ± 10 years, BMI = 29.1 ± 2.3 kg/m2) were randomised to IER (n = 24; alternate fast days at 25% energy requirements and ad libitum feed days) or CER (n = 22; 75% energy requirements daily) to ≥5% weight loss (WL) or up to 12 weeks. Self-reported energy intake (EI; online food record), objectively measured PA (SenseWear Armband) and retrospective daily hunger and food cravings were measured over 7 days at baseline, week 2 and final week. Intent-to-treat analyses were performed using linear mixed models. RESULTS: Final WL (MΔ = 4.7 [95% confidence interval 4.2, 5.2] kg, 5.9%) did not differ between IER and CER (interaction P = 0.307). During IER, feed-day EI did not differ from baseline and was lower in the final week compared to week 2 (MΔ = 295 [81, 509] kcal, P = 0.004). Daily hunger was greater on fast compared to feed days (MΔ = 15 [10, 21] mm, P < 0.001), but food cravings did not differ. Light PA was lower on fast relative to feed days (MΔ = 18 [2, 34] min/day, P = 0.024), with no other differences in PA. Compared to CER, IER increased hunger and led to smaller improvements in craving control (both interactions P ≤ 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: IER fast days were associated with increased free-living hunger and lower light PA compared to feed days, but had no impact on food cravings or self-reported ad libitum daily EI. IER may be less favourable than CER for the free-living day-to-day control of hunger and food cravings. SN - 1476-5640 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32873926/An_exploratory_investigation_of_the_impact_of_'fast'_and_'feed'_days_during_intermittent_energy_restriction_on_free_living_energy_balance_behaviours_and_subjective_states_in_women_with_overweight/obesity_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-00740-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -