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Ocular tropism of coronavirus (CoVs): a comparison of the interaction between the animal-to-human transmitted coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, CoV-229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1) and the eye.
Int Ophthalmol. 2020 Sep 03 [Online ahead of print]IO

Abstract

PURPOSE

Several studies have reported conflicting results on ocular manifestations and transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) whose causative virus, SARS-CoV-2, belongs to the coronavirus family, the seventh recognized as a human pathogen and the third causing a severe clinical syndrome. COVID-19 primarily affects the lungs, similar to the other human coronaviruses. Comparing the relation between the animal-to-human transmitted coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-1, SARS-Cov-2, MERS-CoV, CoV-229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1) and the eye may contribute to determining their actual eye-tissue tropism and risk of ocular transmission.

METHODS

Literature review was conducted via Pubmed.gov, Google Scholar and medRixv using the following keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, CoV-229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, conjunctivitis, tear swab, ocular expression, ocular symptoms and human angiotensin converting enzyme-2 expression. Studies with lack in methodology were excluded.

RESULTS

Sixteen observational studies were selected. The range for detection of viral RNA in tears was 0-8% for SARS-CoV-1 and 0-5.3% for SARS-CoV-2, while no reports were found for other coronaviruses. Ocular manifestations have been reported for NL63 and SARS-CoV-2. Ocular symptoms in the form of conjunctivitis/conjunctival congestion predominantly were detected in 65 (3.17%) out of 2048 reported patients with COVID-19 (range of 0.8-32%). Eye symptoms were not reported for the other coronaviruses.

CONCLUSIONS

Data aggregation for coronaviruses shows a relatively low eye-tissue tropism. Conjunctival congestion is an uncommon manifestation of COVID-19 similar to all human coronaviruses' infections. In a low percentage of patients, the virus can be excreted in ocular fluids at different stages of the infection, regardless of positive SARS-Cov-2 throat swab. Albeit high viral loads in ocular tissue seem to have relatively low prevalence, the eye should be regarded as a potential source of infection dissemination for COVID-19.

Authors+Show Affiliations

King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. strianes@unina.it. Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Sciences and Dentistry, University of Naples Federico II, 80121, Naples, Italy. strianes@unina.it.King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Department of Medicine and Health Sciences "V. Tiberio", University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy.Department of Preventive Medicine, ASL Napoli 1 Centro, Naples, Italy.Department of Medicine and Health Sciences "V. Tiberio", University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32880786

Citation

Al-Sharif, Eman, et al. "Ocular Tropism of Coronavirus (CoVs): a Comparison of the Interaction Between the Animal-to-human Transmitted Coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, CoV-229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1) and the Eye." International Ophthalmology, 2020.
Al-Sharif E, Strianese D, AlMadhi NH, et al. Ocular tropism of coronavirus (CoVs): a comparison of the interaction between the animal-to-human transmitted coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, CoV-229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1) and the eye. Int Ophthalmol. 2020.
Al-Sharif, E., Strianese, D., AlMadhi, N. H., D'Aponte, A., dell'Omo, R., Di Benedetto, R., & Costagliola, C. (2020). Ocular tropism of coronavirus (CoVs): a comparison of the interaction between the animal-to-human transmitted coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, CoV-229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1) and the eye. International Ophthalmology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10792-020-01575-2
Al-Sharif E, et al. Ocular Tropism of Coronavirus (CoVs): a Comparison of the Interaction Between the Animal-to-human Transmitted Coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, CoV-229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1) and the Eye. Int Ophthalmol. 2020 Sep 3; PubMed PMID: 32880786.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ocular tropism of coronavirus (CoVs): a comparison of the interaction between the animal-to-human transmitted coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, CoV-229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1) and the eye. AU - Al-Sharif,Eman, AU - Strianese,Diego, AU - AlMadhi,Nada H, AU - D'Aponte,Antonella, AU - dell'Omo,Roberto, AU - Di Benedetto,Rita, AU - Costagliola,Ciro, Y1 - 2020/09/03/ PY - 2020/05/19/received PY - 2020/08/29/accepted PY - 2020/9/4/entrez PY - 2020/9/4/pubmed PY - 2020/9/4/medline KW - COVID-19 KW - Conjunctivitis KW - Coronavirus KW - Eye KW - Ophthalmologists KW - Precautions KW - SARS-CoV-2 JF - International ophthalmology JO - Int Ophthalmol N2 - PURPOSE: Several studies have reported conflicting results on ocular manifestations and transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) whose causative virus, SARS-CoV-2, belongs to the coronavirus family, the seventh recognized as a human pathogen and the third causing a severe clinical syndrome. COVID-19 primarily affects the lungs, similar to the other human coronaviruses. Comparing the relation between the animal-to-human transmitted coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-1, SARS-Cov-2, MERS-CoV, CoV-229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1) and the eye may contribute to determining their actual eye-tissue tropism and risk of ocular transmission. METHODS: Literature review was conducted via Pubmed.gov, Google Scholar and medRixv using the following keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, CoV-229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, conjunctivitis, tear swab, ocular expression, ocular symptoms and human angiotensin converting enzyme-2 expression. Studies with lack in methodology were excluded. RESULTS: Sixteen observational studies were selected. The range for detection of viral RNA in tears was 0-8% for SARS-CoV-1 and 0-5.3% for SARS-CoV-2, while no reports were found for other coronaviruses. Ocular manifestations have been reported for NL63 and SARS-CoV-2. Ocular symptoms in the form of conjunctivitis/conjunctival congestion predominantly were detected in 65 (3.17%) out of 2048 reported patients with COVID-19 (range of 0.8-32%). Eye symptoms were not reported for the other coronaviruses. CONCLUSIONS: Data aggregation for coronaviruses shows a relatively low eye-tissue tropism. Conjunctival congestion is an uncommon manifestation of COVID-19 similar to all human coronaviruses' infections. In a low percentage of patients, the virus can be excreted in ocular fluids at different stages of the infection, regardless of positive SARS-Cov-2 throat swab. Albeit high viral loads in ocular tissue seem to have relatively low prevalence, the eye should be regarded as a potential source of infection dissemination for COVID-19. SN - 1573-2630 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32880786/Ocular_tropism_of_coronavirus__CoVs_:_a_comparison_of_the_interaction_between_the_animal_to_human_transmitted_coronaviruses__SARS_CoV_1_SARS_CoV_2_MERS_CoV_CoV_229E_NL63_OC43_HKU1__and_the_eye_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10792-020-01575-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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