Determination of biodiesel and used cooking oil in automotive diesel/green diesel fuels through high-performance liquid chromatography.J Chromatogr A. 2020 Oct 11; 1629:461512.JC
This study reports a simple and convenient analytical method for the simultaneous determination of biodiesel and vegetable oils or used cooking oils in petrodiesel and green diesel (hydrotreated vegetable oils or paraffinic diesel). The approach is based on normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection. It employed silica stationary phase, n-hexane mobile phase with isopropanol modifier to achieve optimum separation between hydrocarbons (petrodiesel or green diesel), fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) and triglycerides (vegetable oils and used cooking oil). In addition to determining vegetable oils or used cooking oils as adulterants in diesel, this method is also proposed as a better alternative to the standard method ASTM D7371, which is currently recommended for determining fatty acid methyl esters in petrodiesel. The method development involved screening of various stationary and mobile phases, with and without modifiers, to achieve acceptable chromatographic resolutions between analytes. Under the optimized method conditions, silica column, and n-hexane containing 0.6% isopropanol as the mobile phase provided the best results. The real-world scenario was simulated for the method validation carried out by fortifying Jatropha seed oil, soybean oil, and used cooking oil in the biodiesel blended petrodiesel and green diesel. Measurement of all analytes was accompanied by high precision, low limit of detection/quantification and linear response range of 0.05 to 50% for biodiesel, and 0.05 to 30% for vegetable oils. The proposed method is simple, fast (runtime 7 min), and does not require sample pre-treatment and backflushing.