Effects of dietary fern (Adiantum capillus-veneris) leaves powder on serum and mucus antioxidant defence, immunological responses, antimicrobial activity and growth performance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) juveniles.Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2020 Nov; 106:959-966.FS
A 56-day research was performed to examine the influence of graded levels (0 (control), 0.5, 1 and 2%) of Fern (Adiantum capillus-veneris) leaves powder (FLP) in diet on immune competence and growth of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, initial weight = 20 g). The serum total immunoglobulins content and lysozyme activity in the 1 and 2% FLP groups remarkably increased compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). The skin mucosal lysozyme activity enhanced with increasing dietary FLP level in a dose-response manner. Fish fed on the FLP-supplemented diets had higher skin-mucosal superoxide dismutase activity than the control (P < 0.05). However, serum antioxidant enzymes were not affected by dietary fern (P > 0.05). The serum bactericidal activity against human and fish pathogens increased with enhancing the FLP level in diet against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (EHEC ATCC 43895), Escherichia coli (CI), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Aeromonas hydrophila. The serum antibacterial activity against Yersinia ruckeri in the 2% FLP group was higher than the other treatments. Furthermore, the serum bactericidal activity against P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) only observed in fish fed on the 1 and 2% FLP-supplemented diets. The skin mucosal bactericidal activity and inhibitory effects increased with enhancing the FLP level in diet against E. coli, K. pneumonia, Y. ruckeri and A. hydrophila in a dose response manner. Moreover, the skin mucosal bactericidal activity against S. aureus only observed in fish fed on 1 and 2% FLP-supplemented diets. The weight gain values in the 1 and 2% FLP groups were higher than the other treatments (P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) improved with increasing FLP level in diet in a dose-response manner (P < 0.05). By considering serum and mucosal bactericidal activities against different pathogenic bacteria, the supplementation of 2% FLP in diet is recommended for C. carpio during grow-out phase.