Intelligent pH indicator films containing anthocyanins extracted from blueberry peel for monitoring tilapia fillet freshness.J Sci Food Agric. 2021 Mar 30; 101(5):1800-1811.JS
Fish spoilage leads to an increase in the pH value of the fish. A colorimetric pH indicator can be used to monitor fish spoilage and has been exploited in intelligent packaging because of its simplicity, practicality and low cost. The aim of this study was to develop two pH-indicator films comprising starch (S), tara gum (TG), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and anthocyanins extracted from blueberry peel and the films were then used to monitor the freshness of tilapia fillets during storage at 25 and 4 °C.
The ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectra and color of anthocyanins changed within pH 2-10. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy certified that blueberry peel extract (BPE) had been introduced into the S/PVA and TG/PVA matrices. Visual color changes in the films occurred at pH 2-8. A freshness application test was conducted in tilapia fillets stored at 4 and 25 °C, and visual color changes in the films were observed. The TG/PVA/BPE film had a greater color difference (ΔE) from pink and transparent to dark yellow at 25 °C and to dark purple at 4 °C than ΔE of S/PVA/BPE film, which sufficiently correlated with the change of total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) and total aerobic counts (TACs) of fillets.
It can be concluded that the color changes of TG/PVA/BPE films were corresponded with TVB-N and TAC values of tilapia fillets, which presented great potential as a visual package label to monitor fish freshness at ambient and chilled temperatures. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.