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SARS-CoV-2 in environmental perspective: Occurrence, persistence, surveillance, inactivation and challenges.
Chem Eng J. 2021 Feb 01; 405:126893.CE

Abstract

The unprecedented global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is depicting the distressing pandemic consequence on human health, economy as well as ecosystem services. So far novel coronavirus (CoV) outbreaks were associated with SARS-CoV-2 (2019), middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV, 2012), and SARS-CoV-1 (2003) events. CoV relates to the enveloped family of Betacoronavirus (βCoV) with positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA). Knowing well the persistence, transmission, and spread of SARS-CoV-2 through proximity, the faecal-oral route is now emerging as a major environmental concern to community transmission. The replication and persistence of CoV in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and shedding through stools is indicating a potential transmission route to the environment settings. Despite of the evidence, based on fewer reports on SARS-CoV-2 occurrence and persistence in wastewater/sewage/water, the transmission of the infective virus to the community is yet to be established. In this realm, this communication attempted to review the possible influx route of the enteric enveloped viral transmission in the environmental settings with reference to its occurrence, persistence, detection, and inactivation based on the published literature so far. The possibilities of airborne transmission through enteric virus-laden aerosols, environmental factors that may influence the viral transmission, and disinfection methods (conventional and emerging) as well as the inactivation mechanism with reference to the enveloped virus were reviewed. The need for wastewater epidemiology (WBE) studies for surveillance as well as for early warning signal was elaborated. This communication will provide a basis to understand the SARS-CoV-2 as well as other viruses in the context of the environmental engineering perspective to design effective strategies to counter the enteric virus transmission and also serves as a working paper for researchers, policy makers and regulators.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Bioengineering and Environmental Sciences Lab, Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering (DEEE), CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT), Hyderabad 500007, India. Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT) Campus, Hyderabad 500007, India.Bioengineering and Environmental Sciences Lab, Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering (DEEE), CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT), Hyderabad 500007, India. Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT) Campus, Hyderabad 500007, India.Bioengineering and Environmental Sciences Lab, Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering (DEEE), CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT), Hyderabad 500007, India.Bioengineering and Environmental Sciences Lab, Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering (DEEE), CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT), Hyderabad 500007, India.Bioengineering and Environmental Sciences Lab, Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering (DEEE), CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT), Hyderabad 500007, India. CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT) Dispensary, Hyderabad 500007, India.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32901196

Citation

Mohan, S Venkata, et al. "SARS-CoV-2 in Environmental Perspective: Occurrence, Persistence, Surveillance, Inactivation and Challenges." Chemical Engineering Journal (Lausanne, Switzerland : 1996), vol. 405, 2021, p. 126893.
Mohan SV, Hemalatha M, Kopperi H, et al. SARS-CoV-2 in environmental perspective: Occurrence, persistence, surveillance, inactivation and challenges. Chem Eng J. 2021;405:126893.
Mohan, S. V., Hemalatha, M., Kopperi, H., Ranjith, I., & Kumar, A. K. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 in environmental perspective: Occurrence, persistence, surveillance, inactivation and challenges. Chemical Engineering Journal (Lausanne, Switzerland : 1996), 405, 126893. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.126893
Mohan SV, et al. SARS-CoV-2 in Environmental Perspective: Occurrence, Persistence, Surveillance, Inactivation and Challenges. Chem Eng J. 2021 Feb 1;405:126893. PubMed PMID: 32901196.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - SARS-CoV-2 in environmental perspective: Occurrence, persistence, surveillance, inactivation and challenges. AU - Mohan,S Venkata, AU - Hemalatha,Manupati, AU - Kopperi,Harishankar, AU - Ranjith,I, AU - Kumar,A Kiran, Y1 - 2020/09/04/ PY - 2020/07/14/received PY - 2020/08/29/revised PY - 2020/08/31/accepted PY - 2020/9/10/pubmed PY - 2020/9/10/medline PY - 2020/9/9/entrez KW - (h+), Photoholes KW - +ssRNA, Positive Sense Single-Stranded RNA KW - A-WWTS, Algal-WWTS KW - ACE2, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 KW - AH, Absolute Humidity KW - AOPs, Advanced Oxidation Processes KW - ASP, Activate Sludge Process KW - Aerosols KW - BCoV, Bovine Enteric Coronavirus) KW - BSL, Biosafety Level KW - BVDV1, Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1 KW - BVDV2, Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 KW - BoRv, Bovine Rotavirus Group A KW - CCA, Carbon Covered Alumina KW - CNT, Carbon Nanotubes KW - COVID-19 KW - COVID-19, Coronavirus Disease 2019 KW - CRFK, Crandell Reese feline kidney cell line (CRFK) KW - CVE, Coxsackievirus B5 KW - ClO2, Chlorine dioxide KW - Cl−, Chlorine KW - Cys, Cysteine KW - DBP, Disinfection by-products KW - DBT, L2 and Delayed Brain Tumor Cell Cultures KW - DMEM, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium KW - DNA, deoxyribose nucleic acid KW - Disinfection KW - E gene, Envelope protein gene KW - EV, Echovirus 11 KW - Enteric virus KW - Enveloped virus KW - FC, Free Chlorine KW - FFP3, Filtering Face Piece KW - FIPV, Feline infectious peritonitis virus KW - GI, Gastrointestinal tract KW - H2O2, Hydrogen Peroxide KW - H3N2, InfluenzaA KW - H6N2, Avian influenza virus KW - HAV, Hepatitis A virus (HAV) KW - HAdV, Human Adenovirus KW - HCoV, Human CoV KW - HEV, Hepatitis E virus KW - HKU1, Human CoV1 KW - ICC-PCR, Integrated Cell Culture with PCR KW - JCV, JCV polyomavirus KW - MALDI-TOF MS, Mass Spectrometry KW - MBR, Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) KW - MERS-CoV, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus KW - MHV, Murine hepatitis virus KW - MNV-1, Murine Norovirus KW - MWCNTs, Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes KW - Met, Methionine KW - N gene, Nucleocapsid protein gene KW - NCoV, Novel coronavirus KW - NGS, Next generation sequencing KW - NTP, Non-Thermal Plasma KW - O2, Singlet Oxygen KW - O3, Ozone KW - ORF, Open Reading Frame KW - PAA, Para Acetic Acid KW - PCR, Polymerase Chain Reaction KW - PEC, Photoelectrocatalytical KW - PEG, Polyethylene Glycol KW - PFU, Plaque Forming Unit KW - PMMoV, Pepper Mild Mottle Virus KW - PMR, Photocatalytic Membrane Reactors KW - PPE, Personal Protective Equipment KW - PTAF, Photocatalytic Titanium Apatite Filter KW - PV-1, Polivirus-1 KW - PV-3, Poliovirus 3 KW - PVDF, Polyvinylidene Fluoride KW - Qβ, bacteriophages KW - RH, Relative Humidity KW - RNA, Ribose nucleic acid KW - RONS, Reactive Oxygen and/or Nitrogen Species KW - RT-PCR, Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction KW - RVA, Rotaviruses A KW - SARS-CoV-1, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 1 KW - SARS-CoV-2, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 KW - SBR, Sequential Batch Reactor KW - SODIS, Solar water disinfection KW - STP, Sewage Treatment Plant KW - Sewage KW - T90, First order reaction time required for completion of 90% KW - T99.9, First order reaction time required for completion of 99.9% KW - TGEV, Porcine Coronavirus Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus KW - TGEV, Transmissible Gastroenteritis KW - Trp, Tryptophan KW - Tyr, Tyrosine KW - US-EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency KW - UV, Ultraviolet KW - WBE, Wastewater-Based Epidemiology KW - WWT, Wastewater Treatment KW - WWTPs, Wastewater Treatment Plants KW - dPCR, Digital PCR KW - ds, Double Stranded KW - dsDNA, Double Stranded DNA KW - log10, logarithm with base 10 KW - qRT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR KW - ss, Single Stranded KW - ssDNA, Single Stranded DNA KW - ssRNA, Single Stranded RNA KW - αCoV, Alphacoronavirus KW - βCoV, Betacoronavirus SP - 126893 EP - 126893 JF - Chemical engineering journal (Lausanne, Switzerland : 1996) JO - Chem Eng J VL - 405 N2 - The unprecedented global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is depicting the distressing pandemic consequence on human health, economy as well as ecosystem services. So far novel coronavirus (CoV) outbreaks were associated with SARS-CoV-2 (2019), middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV, 2012), and SARS-CoV-1 (2003) events. CoV relates to the enveloped family of Betacoronavirus (βCoV) with positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA). Knowing well the persistence, transmission, and spread of SARS-CoV-2 through proximity, the faecal-oral route is now emerging as a major environmental concern to community transmission. The replication and persistence of CoV in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and shedding through stools is indicating a potential transmission route to the environment settings. Despite of the evidence, based on fewer reports on SARS-CoV-2 occurrence and persistence in wastewater/sewage/water, the transmission of the infective virus to the community is yet to be established. In this realm, this communication attempted to review the possible influx route of the enteric enveloped viral transmission in the environmental settings with reference to its occurrence, persistence, detection, and inactivation based on the published literature so far. The possibilities of airborne transmission through enteric virus-laden aerosols, environmental factors that may influence the viral transmission, and disinfection methods (conventional and emerging) as well as the inactivation mechanism with reference to the enveloped virus were reviewed. The need for wastewater epidemiology (WBE) studies for surveillance as well as for early warning signal was elaborated. This communication will provide a basis to understand the SARS-CoV-2 as well as other viruses in the context of the environmental engineering perspective to design effective strategies to counter the enteric virus transmission and also serves as a working paper for researchers, policy makers and regulators. SN - 1385-8947 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32901196/SARS_CoV_2_in_environmental_perspective:_Occurrence_persistence_surveillance_inactivation_and_challenges_ L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/32901196/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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