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Be careful what you say! - Evaluative change based on instructional learning generalizes to other similar stimuli and to the wider category.
Cogn Emot. 2021 02; 35(1):169-184.CE

Abstract

In evaluative conditioning, a conditional stimulus (CS; e.g. a neutral picture) acquires positive/negative valence if it is paired with a pleasant/unpleasant unconditional stimulus (US; e.g. a positive/negative picture). This valence generalises to other stimuli similar to the CS and to the wider CS category. Being informed that the CS will be paired with the US induces a similar change in valence (instructional learning), but it is not clear whether instructional learning would also generalise. In Experiment 1, participants were informed that one shape would be paired with pleasant and another with unpleasant images. These instructions instilled conditional valence to the CSs which generalised to different shapes from the same category (generalisation stimuli). In Experiment 2, we replicated this finding in an implicit measure using stimuli varying in perceptual features. Participants were informed that three CSs from one category (e.g. vegetables) would be paired with pleasant images and three CSs from a second category (e.g. office supplies) would be paired with unpleasant images. This instruction instilled conditional valence to the CSs which generalised to novel exemplars from the same categories. This suggests that conditional valence instilled via instructions generalises to other stimuli - a finding with implications for prejudice and racism.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Psychology, Curtin University, Australia, GPO Box U1987 Perth WA 6845, Australia. ARC-SRI: Science of Learning Research Centre, Brisbane, Australia.School of Psychology, Curtin University, Australia, GPO Box U1987 Perth WA 6845, Australia.School of Psychology, Curtin University, Australia, GPO Box U1987 Perth WA 6845, Australia. ARC-SRI: Science of Learning Research Centre, Brisbane, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32907472

Citation

Luck, Camilla C., et al. "Be Careful what You Say! - Evaluative Change Based On Instructional Learning Generalizes to Other Similar Stimuli and to the Wider Category." Cognition & Emotion, vol. 35, no. 1, 2021, pp. 169-184.
Luck CC, Patterson RR, Lipp OV. Be careful what you say! - Evaluative change based on instructional learning generalizes to other similar stimuli and to the wider category. Cogn Emot. 2021;35(1):169-184.
Luck, C. C., Patterson, R. R., & Lipp, O. V. (2021). Be careful what you say! - Evaluative change based on instructional learning generalizes to other similar stimuli and to the wider category. Cognition & Emotion, 35(1), 169-184. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2020.1816912
Luck CC, Patterson RR, Lipp OV. Be Careful what You Say! - Evaluative Change Based On Instructional Learning Generalizes to Other Similar Stimuli and to the Wider Category. Cogn Emot. 2021;35(1):169-184. PubMed PMID: 32907472.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Be careful what you say! - Evaluative change based on instructional learning generalizes to other similar stimuli and to the wider category. AU - Luck,Camilla C, AU - Patterson,Rachel R, AU - Lipp,Ottmar V, Y1 - 2020/09/10/ PY - 2020/9/11/pubmed PY - 2021/7/29/medline PY - 2020/9/10/entrez KW - Evaluative conditioning KW - conceptual generalisation KW - instructed acquisition KW - instructional learning KW - valence SP - 169 EP - 184 JF - Cognition & emotion JO - Cogn Emot VL - 35 IS - 1 N2 - In evaluative conditioning, a conditional stimulus (CS; e.g. a neutral picture) acquires positive/negative valence if it is paired with a pleasant/unpleasant unconditional stimulus (US; e.g. a positive/negative picture). This valence generalises to other stimuli similar to the CS and to the wider CS category. Being informed that the CS will be paired with the US induces a similar change in valence (instructional learning), but it is not clear whether instructional learning would also generalise. In Experiment 1, participants were informed that one shape would be paired with pleasant and another with unpleasant images. These instructions instilled conditional valence to the CSs which generalised to different shapes from the same category (generalisation stimuli). In Experiment 2, we replicated this finding in an implicit measure using stimuli varying in perceptual features. Participants were informed that three CSs from one category (e.g. vegetables) would be paired with pleasant images and three CSs from a second category (e.g. office supplies) would be paired with unpleasant images. This instruction instilled conditional valence to the CSs which generalised to novel exemplars from the same categories. This suggests that conditional valence instilled via instructions generalises to other stimuli - a finding with implications for prejudice and racism. SN - 1464-0600 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32907472/Be_careful_what_you_say___Evaluative_change_based_on_instructional_learning_generalizes_to_other_similar_stimuli_and_to_the_wider_category_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -