Higher Completion Rates With Self-administered Once-weekly Isoniazid-rifapentine Versus Daily Rifampin in Adults With Latent Tuberculosis.Clin Infect Dis. 2021 11 02; 73(9):e3459-e3467.CI
Treatment of latent tuberculosis (LTBI) is important for tuberculosis (TB) prevention, and short course rifamycin-based therapies are preferred. Once-weekly isoniazid-rifapentine by self-administered therapy (3HP-SAT) has never been compared with 4 months of daily rifampin (4R).
Retrospective cohort study of adults ≥18 years of age initiating LTBI treatment with either 3HP-SAT or 4R in a United States (US)-based TB clinic between 11 April 2016 and 31 December 2018. We evaluated treatment completion through pharmacy fills and reviewed charts for reasons of noncompletion, including adverse events (AEs). The χ 2 test and a log-binomial multivariable model were used to compare treatment completion and AEs.
Five hundred sixty individuals (42%) initiated 3HP-SAT and 773 (58%) initiated 4R. Median age was 38, 55% were female, and 89% were born outside of the US. Among those aged 18-49 years, treatment completion with 3HP-SAT was 79% compared to 68% with 4R (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 1.17 [95% CI, 1.17-1.27]; P < .0001). Among individuals aged ≥50 years, treatment completion with 3HP-SAT was 87% compared to 64% with 4R (aRR, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.19-1.52]; P < .0001). Compared to 4R, there was no difference in risk of AEs in the 18-49 age group (aRR, 0.93 [95% CI, .58-1.48]; P = .75). Reduced risk of AEs was noted among patients aged ≥50 years who received 3HP-SAT (aRR, 0.37 [95% CI, .16-.85]; P = .02).
3HP-SAT was associated with higher LTBI treatment completion and lower rates of AEs compared to 4R in individuals aged 50 and older. Expanding 3HP-SAT as an option for patients with LTBI may enhance TB prevention strategies in the US.