Molecular Basis of Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses: A Comparative Genomics Approach to Planetary Health to Prevent Zoonotic Outbreaks in the 21st Century.OMICS. 2020 11; 24(11):634-644.O
In the first quarter of the 21st century, we are already facing the third emergence of a coronavirus outbreak, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Comparative genomics can inform a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Previous strains of coronavirus, SARS-CoV, and Middle-East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV), have been known to cause acute lung injuries in humans. SARS-CoV-2 shares genetic similarity with SARS-CoV with some modification in the S protein leading to their enhanced binding affinity toward the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors of human lung cells. This expert review examines the features of all three coronaviruses through a conceptual lens of comparative genomics. In particular, the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 that enables its survival within the host is highlighted. Susceptibility of humans to coronavirus outbreaks in the 21st century calls for comparisons of the transmission history, hosts, reservoirs, and fatality rates of these viruses so that evidence-based and effective planetary health interventions can be devised to prevent future zoonotic outbreaks. Comparative genomics offers new insights on putative and novel viral targets with an eye to both therapeutic innovation and prevention. We conclude the expert review by (1) articulating the lessons learned so far, whereas the research is still being actively sought after in the field, and (2) the challenges and prospects in deciphering the linkages among multiomics biological variability and COVID-19 pathogenesis.