Nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide modulate the NADPH-generating enzymatic system in higher plants.J Exp Bot. 2021 02 11; 72(3):830-847.JE
Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are two key molecules in plant cells that participate, directly or indirectly, as regulators of protein functions through derived post-translational modifications, mainly tyrosine nitration, S-nitrosation, and persulfidation. These post-translational modifications allow the participation of both NO and H2S signal molecules in a wide range of cellular processes either physiological or under stressful circumstances. NADPH participates in cellular redox status and it is a key cofactor necessary for cell growth and development. It is involved in significant biochemical routes such as fatty acid, carotenoid and proline biosynthesis, and the shikimate pathway, as well as in cellular detoxification processes including the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, the NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR), or the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase. Plant cells have diverse mechanisms to generate NADPH by a group of NADP-dependent oxidoreductases including ferredoxin-NADP reductase (FNR), NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NADP-GAPDH), NADP-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME), NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH), and both enzymes of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, designated as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH). These enzymes consist of different isozymes located in diverse subcellular compartments (chloroplasts, cytosol, mitochondria, and peroxisomes) which contribute to the NAPDH cellular pool. We provide a comprehensive overview of how post-translational modifications promoted by NO (tyrosine nitration and S-nitrosation), H2S (persulfidation), and glutathione (glutathionylation), affect the cellular redox status through regulation of the NADP-dependent dehydrogenases.