Monosodium Glutamate Induces Cytotoxicity in Rat Liver via Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Opening.Cell Biochem Biophys. 2020 Dec; 78(4):429-437.CB
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a major food additive used as a flavor enhancer. A lot of controversies have been generated over the use of MSG. The present study therefore investigated whether MSG would induce cytotoxicity via the induction of mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore opening. 36 male albino rats were used for this study. The rats were equally divided into six groups: group I is the control while group II, III, IV, V, and VI were orally treated with MSG (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) daily for 28 days. The opening of the pore, cytochrome c release, mitochondrial ATPase activity, mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and hepatic DNA fragmentation were determined spectrophotometrically. Histological assessment of prostate and brain was carried out. The results show that MSG at concentrations ≤30 µg/ml did not induce mPT pore opening while higher concentrations caused significant induction of pore opening. Also, at lower doses (25 and 50 mg/kg), MSG did not cause any significant induction of mPT pore opening while at higher doses, there were significant induction of pore opening. Similar trend of results was recorded for cytochrome c release, mitochondrial ATPase activity and lipid peroxidation. The histological results show that at low doses (25 and 50 mg/kg), no significant lesion was observed while higher doses caused benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in the prostate and necrotic damage in the brain. MSG administration at low dose is tolerable while high doses induce cytotoxicity via mPT pore opening.