Social distancing measures in the fight against COVID-19 in Brazil: description and epidemiological analysis by state.Cad Saude Publica. 2020; 36(9):e00185020.CS
Social distancing measures have been widely adopted to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. However, little is known about the timing of measures' implementation, scope, and duration in relation to their impact. The study aimed to describe the social distancing measures implemented by Brazil's states and the Federal District, including the types of measures and the timing of their implementation. This is a descriptive study of the measures' type, chronological and epidemiological timing of the implementation, and scope. The survey of measures used searches in official websites of the government departments and each state's Government Register. The official number of COVID-19 cases and deaths were obtained from an official a data platform. We considered the following categories of social distancing measures: suspension of events, school closure, quarantine of risk groups, economic lockdown (partial or full), restrictions on transportation, and quarantine of the population. The implementation's timing considered both the chronological date and the epidemiological timing, based on the time since the 10th case or 1st death from COVID-19 in each state. All the states implemented distancing measures, mostly during the latter half of March 2020. Economic lockdown was implemented early, prior to the 10th case by 67% of the states and prior to the 1st death from COVID-19 by 89% of the states. Early social distancing measures were widely implemented in Brazil, before or in the initial phase of the exponential growth curve of COVID-19 cases and deaths in the great majority of states.