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Healthy donor T cell responses to common cold coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2.
J Clin Invest. 2020 12 01; 130(12):6631-6638.JCI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

T cell responses to the common cold coronaviruses have not been well characterized. Preexisting T cell immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported, and a recent study suggested that this immunity was due to cross-recognition of the novel coronavirus by T cells specific for the common cold coronaviruses.

METHODS

We used the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay to characterize the T cell responses against peptide pools derived from the spike protein of 3 common cold coronaviruses (HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-OC43) and SARS-CoV-2 in 21 healthy donors (HDs) who were seronegative for SARS-CoV-2 and had no known exposure to the virus. An in vitro expansion culture assay was also used to analyze memory T cell responses.

RESULTS

We found responses to the spike protein of the 3 common cold coronaviruses in many of the donors. We then focused on HCoV-NL63 and detected broad T cell responses to the spike protein and identified 22 targeted peptides. Interestingly, only 1 study participant had a significant response to SARS-CoV-2 spike or nucleocapsid protein in the ELISPOT assay. In vitro expansion studies suggested that T cells specific for the HCoV-NL63 spike protein in this individual could also recognize SARS-CoV-2 spike protein peptide pools.CONCLUSIONHDs have circulating T cells specific for the spike proteins of HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-OC43. T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins were present in only 1 participant and were potentially the result of cross-recognition by T cells specific for the common cold coronaviruses. Further studies are needed to determine whether this cross-recognition influences coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), NIH, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32966269

Citation

Woldemeskel, Bezawit A., et al. "Healthy Donor T Cell Responses to Common Cold Coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2." The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 130, no. 12, 2020, pp. 6631-6638.
Woldemeskel BA, Kwaa AK, Garliss CC, et al. Healthy donor T cell responses to common cold coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2. J Clin Invest. 2020;130(12):6631-6638.
Woldemeskel, B. A., Kwaa, A. K., Garliss, C. C., Laeyendecker, O., Ray, S. C., & Blankson, J. N. (2020). Healthy donor T cell responses to common cold coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 130(12), 6631-6638. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI143120
Woldemeskel BA, et al. Healthy Donor T Cell Responses to Common Cold Coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2. J Clin Invest. 2020 12 1;130(12):6631-6638. PubMed PMID: 32966269.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Healthy donor T cell responses to common cold coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2. AU - Woldemeskel,Bezawit A, AU - Kwaa,Abena K, AU - Garliss,Caroline C, AU - Laeyendecker,Oliver, AU - Ray,Stuart C, AU - Blankson,Joel N, PY - 2020/08/07/received PY - 2020/09/09/accepted PY - 2020/9/24/pubmed PY - 2020/12/15/medline PY - 2020/9/23/entrez KW - Adaptive immunity KW - Immunology KW - Infectious disease KW - T cells SP - 6631 EP - 6638 JF - The Journal of clinical investigation JO - J Clin Invest VL - 130 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUNDT cell responses to the common cold coronaviruses have not been well characterized. Preexisting T cell immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported, and a recent study suggested that this immunity was due to cross-recognition of the novel coronavirus by T cells specific for the common cold coronaviruses.METHODSWe used the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay to characterize the T cell responses against peptide pools derived from the spike protein of 3 common cold coronaviruses (HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-OC43) and SARS-CoV-2 in 21 healthy donors (HDs) who were seronegative for SARS-CoV-2 and had no known exposure to the virus. An in vitro expansion culture assay was also used to analyze memory T cell responses.RESULTSWe found responses to the spike protein of the 3 common cold coronaviruses in many of the donors. We then focused on HCoV-NL63 and detected broad T cell responses to the spike protein and identified 22 targeted peptides. Interestingly, only 1 study participant had a significant response to SARS-CoV-2 spike or nucleocapsid protein in the ELISPOT assay. In vitro expansion studies suggested that T cells specific for the HCoV-NL63 spike protein in this individual could also recognize SARS-CoV-2 spike protein peptide pools.CONCLUSIONHDs have circulating T cells specific for the spike proteins of HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-OC43. T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins were present in only 1 participant and were potentially the result of cross-recognition by T cells specific for the common cold coronaviruses. Further studies are needed to determine whether this cross-recognition influences coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. SN - 1558-8238 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32966269/Healthy_donor_T_cell_responses_to_common_cold_coronaviruses_and_SARS_CoV_2_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI143120 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -