Mortality and its association with CD4 cell count and hemoglobin level among children on antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Trop Med Health. 2020; 48:80.TM
Even though there are advancements in HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment approach, HIV continues to be a global challenge. Pediatrics HIV is one of the challenges in the reduction of child mortality particularly in less developed countries like Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aims to estimate the pooled proportion of child mortality and the effect of hemoglobin level and CD4 cell count among children on antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia.
All published were articles searched using PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Web of Science database. Besides, Ethiopian institutional research repositories and reference lists of included studies were used. We limited the searching to studies conducted in Ethiopia and written in the English language. Studies that were done in a cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control study design were considered for the review. The weighted inverse variance random effects model was applied, and the overall variations between studies were checked by using heterogeneity test Higgins's (I 2). Subgroup analysis by region and year of publication was conducted. All of the included articles were assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) quality appraisal criteria. In addition, publication bias was also checked with Egger's regression test and the funnel plot. Based on the results, trim and fill analysis was performed to manage the publication bias.
A total of 16 studies with 7047 participants were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall pooled proportion of mortality among children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) was found to be 11.78% (95% CI 9.34, 14.23). In subgroup analysis, the highest child mortality was observed in the Amhara region 16.76 % (95% CI 9.63, 23.90) and the lowest is in the Tigray region 4.81% (95% CI 2.75, 6.87). Besides, the proportion of mortality among children with low CD4 count and hemoglobin level was 2.42 (AOR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.65, 3.56) and 3.24 (AOR = 3.24, 95% CI 1.51, 6.93) times higher compared to their counterparts, respectively.
The proportion of mortality among children on ART was high in Ethiopia. Those children who had low CD4 cell count and low hemoglobin levels at baseline need special attention, treatment, and care.
The protocol of this systematic review and meta-analysis has been registered in PROSPERO with the registration number CRD42018113077.