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Xerostomia, gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions in patients with COVID-19.
Am J Otolaryngol. 2020 Nov - Dec; 41(6):102721.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The novel Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) continues to have profound effect on global health. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence and characterize specific symptoms associated with COVID-19.

METHODS

This retrospective study included 326 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection evaluated at the Emergency Department of the Umberto I Polyclinic Hospital, Rome, Italy between March 6th and April 30th, 2020. In order to assess xerostomia, olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions secondary to COVID-19, a telephone-based a modified survey obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 for taste and smell disorders and the Fox Questionnaire for dry mouth were administered to 111 patients (34%) after discharge between June 4th and June 12th.

RESULTS

Taste dysfunction was the most common reported symptom (59.5%; n = 66), followed by xerostomia (45.9%; n = 51) and olfactory dysfunctions (41.4%; n = 46). The most severe symptom was olfactory dysfunction with a median severity score of 8.5 (range: 5-10). Overall 74.5% (n = 38) of patients with xerostomia, 78.8% (n = 52) of patients with gustatory dysfunctions and 71.1% (n = 33) of patients with olfactory dysfunctions reported that all symptoms appeared before COVID-19 diagnosis. Overall, the majority of patients reported one symptom only (45.9%, n = 51), 37 (33.3%) reported the association of two symptoms, and 23 (20.7%) patients reported the association of three symptoms at the same time.

CONCLUSION

Xerostomia, gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions may present as a prodromal or as the sole manifestation of COVID-19. Awareness is fundamental to identify COVID-19 patients at an early stage of the disease and limit the spread of the virus.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.Department of Emergency Medicine, Umberto I Polyclinic Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.Department of Emergency Medicine, Umberto I Polyclinic Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.Department of Emergency Medicine, Umberto I Polyclinic Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.Department of Emergency Medicine, Umberto I Polyclinic Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.Centro Oncologico ad Alta Tecnologia Diagnostica, Azienda Unità Sanitaria Locale - IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy.Department of Emergency Medicine, Umberto I Polyclinic Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.Department of Clinical, Internal, Anesthesiological and Cardiological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Electronic address: umberto.romeo@uniroma1.it.Department of Orofacial Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32977063

Citation

Fantozzi, Paolo J., et al. "Xerostomia, Gustatory and Olfactory Dysfunctions in Patients With COVID-19." American Journal of Otolaryngology, vol. 41, no. 6, 2020, p. 102721.
Fantozzi PJ, Pampena E, Di Vanna D, et al. Xerostomia, gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions in patients with COVID-19. Am J Otolaryngol. 2020;41(6):102721.
Fantozzi, P. J., Pampena, E., Di Vanna, D., Pellegrino, E., Corbi, D., Mammucari, S., Alessi, F., Pampena, R., Bertazzoni, G., Minisola, S., Mastroianni, C. M., Polimeni, A., Romeo, U., & Villa, A. (2020). Xerostomia, gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions in patients with COVID-19. American Journal of Otolaryngology, 41(6), 102721. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102721
Fantozzi PJ, et al. Xerostomia, Gustatory and Olfactory Dysfunctions in Patients With COVID-19. Am J Otolaryngol. 2020 Nov - Dec;41(6):102721. PubMed PMID: 32977063.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Xerostomia, gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions in patients with COVID-19. AU - Fantozzi,Paolo J, AU - Pampena,Emanuele, AU - Di Vanna,Domenico, AU - Pellegrino,Eugenia, AU - Corbi,Daniele, AU - Mammucari,Stefano, AU - Alessi,Federica, AU - Pampena,Riccardo, AU - Bertazzoni,Giuliano, AU - Minisola,Salvatore, AU - Mastroianni,Claudio Maria, AU - Polimeni,Antonella, AU - Romeo,Umberto, AU - Villa,Alessandro, Y1 - 2020/09/10/ PY - 2020/08/26/received PY - 2020/09/08/accepted PY - 2020/9/26/pubmed PY - 2020/11/24/medline PY - 2020/9/25/entrez KW - Anosmia KW - COVID-19 KW - Dysgeusia KW - Oral diseases KW - Oral medicine KW - Public health KW - Xerostomia SP - 102721 EP - 102721 JF - American journal of otolaryngology JO - Am J Otolaryngol VL - 41 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: The novel Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) continues to have profound effect on global health. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence and characterize specific symptoms associated with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective study included 326 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection evaluated at the Emergency Department of the Umberto I Polyclinic Hospital, Rome, Italy between March 6th and April 30th, 2020. In order to assess xerostomia, olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions secondary to COVID-19, a telephone-based a modified survey obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 for taste and smell disorders and the Fox Questionnaire for dry mouth were administered to 111 patients (34%) after discharge between June 4th and June 12th. RESULTS: Taste dysfunction was the most common reported symptom (59.5%; n = 66), followed by xerostomia (45.9%; n = 51) and olfactory dysfunctions (41.4%; n = 46). The most severe symptom was olfactory dysfunction with a median severity score of 8.5 (range: 5-10). Overall 74.5% (n = 38) of patients with xerostomia, 78.8% (n = 52) of patients with gustatory dysfunctions and 71.1% (n = 33) of patients with olfactory dysfunctions reported that all symptoms appeared before COVID-19 diagnosis. Overall, the majority of patients reported one symptom only (45.9%, n = 51), 37 (33.3%) reported the association of two symptoms, and 23 (20.7%) patients reported the association of three symptoms at the same time. CONCLUSION: Xerostomia, gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions may present as a prodromal or as the sole manifestation of COVID-19. Awareness is fundamental to identify COVID-19 patients at an early stage of the disease and limit the spread of the virus. SN - 1532-818X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32977063/Xerostomia_gustatory_and_olfactory_dysfunctions_in_patients_with_COVID_19_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0196-0709(20)30415-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -