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Diabetic Retinopathy: The Role of Mitochondria in the Neural Retina and Microvascular Disease.
Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Sep 23; 9(10)A

Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common chronic complication of diabetes mellitus and the leading cause of vision loss in the working-age population, is clinically defined as a microvascular disease that involves damage of the retinal capillaries with secondary visual impairment. While its clinical diagnosis is based on vascular pathology, DR is associated with early abnormalities in the electroretinogram, indicating alterations of the neural retina and impaired visual signaling. The pathogenesis of DR is complex and likely involves the simultaneous dysregulation of multiple metabolic and signaling pathways through the retinal neurovascular unit. There is evidence that microvascular disease in DR is caused in part by altered energetic metabolism in the neural retina and specifically from signals originating in the photoreceptors. In this review, we discuss the main pathogenic mechanisms that link alterations in neural retina bioenergetics with vascular regression in DR. We focus specifically on the recent developments related to alterations in mitochondrial metabolism including energetic substrate selection, mitochondrial function, oxidation-reduction (redox) imbalance, and oxidative stress, and critically discuss the mechanisms of these changes and their consequences on retinal function. We also acknowledge implications for emerging therapeutic approaches and future research directions to find novel mitochondria-targeted therapeutic strategies to correct bioenergetics in diabetes. We conclude that retinal bioenergetics is affected in the early stages of diabetes with consequences beyond changes in ATP content, and that maintaining mitochondrial integrity may alleviate retinal disease.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Foundational Sciences, Central Michigan University College of Medicine, Mount Pleasant, MI 48858, USA.Department of Foundational Sciences, Central Michigan University College of Medicine, Mount Pleasant, MI 48858, USA.Department of Foundational Sciences, Central Michigan University College of Medicine, Mount Pleasant, MI 48858, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32977483

Citation

Miller, David J., et al. "Diabetic Retinopathy: the Role of Mitochondria in the Neural Retina and Microvascular Disease." Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 9, no. 10, 2020.
Miller DJ, Cascio MA, Rosca MG. Diabetic Retinopathy: The Role of Mitochondria in the Neural Retina and Microvascular Disease. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020;9(10).
Miller, D. J., Cascio, M. A., & Rosca, M. G. (2020). Diabetic Retinopathy: The Role of Mitochondria in the Neural Retina and Microvascular Disease. Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 9(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100905
Miller DJ, Cascio MA, Rosca MG. Diabetic Retinopathy: the Role of Mitochondria in the Neural Retina and Microvascular Disease. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Sep 23;9(10) PubMed PMID: 32977483.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Diabetic Retinopathy: The Role of Mitochondria in the Neural Retina and Microvascular Disease. AU - Miller,David J, AU - Cascio,M Ariel, AU - Rosca,Mariana G, Y1 - 2020/09/23/ PY - 2020/08/19/received PY - 2020/09/17/revised PY - 2020/09/18/accepted PY - 2020/9/26/entrez PY - 2020/9/27/pubmed PY - 2020/9/27/medline KW - diabetic retinopathy KW - mitochondria KW - oxidative stress KW - photoreceptor KW - redox JF - Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland) JO - Antioxidants (Basel) VL - 9 IS - 10 N2 - Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common chronic complication of diabetes mellitus and the leading cause of vision loss in the working-age population, is clinically defined as a microvascular disease that involves damage of the retinal capillaries with secondary visual impairment. While its clinical diagnosis is based on vascular pathology, DR is associated with early abnormalities in the electroretinogram, indicating alterations of the neural retina and impaired visual signaling. The pathogenesis of DR is complex and likely involves the simultaneous dysregulation of multiple metabolic and signaling pathways through the retinal neurovascular unit. There is evidence that microvascular disease in DR is caused in part by altered energetic metabolism in the neural retina and specifically from signals originating in the photoreceptors. In this review, we discuss the main pathogenic mechanisms that link alterations in neural retina bioenergetics with vascular regression in DR. We focus specifically on the recent developments related to alterations in mitochondrial metabolism including energetic substrate selection, mitochondrial function, oxidation-reduction (redox) imbalance, and oxidative stress, and critically discuss the mechanisms of these changes and their consequences on retinal function. We also acknowledge implications for emerging therapeutic approaches and future research directions to find novel mitochondria-targeted therapeutic strategies to correct bioenergetics in diabetes. We conclude that retinal bioenergetics is affected in the early stages of diabetes with consequences beyond changes in ATP content, and that maintaining mitochondrial integrity may alleviate retinal disease. SN - 2076-3921 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32977483/Diabetic_Retinopathy:_The_Role_of_Mitochondria_in_the_Neural_Retina_and_Microvascular_Disease_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=antiox9100905 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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