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Nutrition Claims on Fruit Drinks Are Inconsistent Indicators of Nutritional Profile: A Content Analysis of Fruit Drinks Purchased by Households With Young Children.
J Acad Nutr Diet. 2021 01; 121(1):36-46.e4.JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Fruit drinks are the most commonly consumed sugar-sweetened beverage among young children. Fruit drinks carry many nutrition-related claims on the front of package (FOP). Nutrition-related claims affect individuals' perceptions of the healthfulness of products and purchase intentions, often creating a "health halo" effect.

OBJECTIVE

The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of FOP nutrition-related claims on fruit drinks purchased by households with young children and to examine the association between claims and the nutritional profile of fruit drinks.

DESIGN

The sample included 2059 fruit drinks purchased by households with children 0 to 5 years old participating in Nielsen Homescan in 2017. FOP labels were obtained from 2 databases that contain bar code-level information on all printed material on product labels. A codebook was used to code for presence of FOP nutrition-related claims. The coded claims data were linked by bar code with Nutrition Facts label data. Claim type prevalence was calculated, and the association between claim types and median calories and total grams of sugar per 100 mL was analyzed using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. The percentages of products containing noncaloric sweeteners (NCSs) with and without each claim type were also calculated and compared.

RESULTS

Almost all (97%) fruit drinks sampled had at least 1 nutrition-related FOP claim. Implied natural claims such as "natural flavors" were the most common (55% of products), followed by claims about the presence of juice or nectar (49%). Claims about vitamin C (33%), sugar (29%), and calories (23%) were also common. Fruit drinks with vitamin C, juice or nectar, fruit or fruit flavor, and overt natural claims were higher in calories and sugar and less likely to contain NCSs compared with products without these claims. Fruit drinks with calorie, sugar, NCS, implied natural, and other claims were lower in calories and sugar and more likely to contain NCSs compared with products without these claims.

CONCLUSIONS

Claims are prevalent on fruit drinks purchased by households with young children. This is concerning given prior research demonstrating that claims can mislead consumers. Regulatory actions such as requiring a warning or disclosure on drinks that contain added sugars or NCSs should be considered.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC.Department of Health Behavior, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC.Hussman School of Journalism and Media, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.Hussman School of Journalism and Media, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC. Electronic address: taillie@unc.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32978105

Citation

Duffy, Emily W., et al. "Nutrition Claims On Fruit Drinks Are Inconsistent Indicators of Nutritional Profile: a Content Analysis of Fruit Drinks Purchased By Households With Young Children." Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 121, no. 1, 2021, pp. 36-46.e4.
Duffy EW, Hall MG, Dillman Carpentier FR, et al. Nutrition Claims on Fruit Drinks Are Inconsistent Indicators of Nutritional Profile: A Content Analysis of Fruit Drinks Purchased by Households With Young Children. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2021;121(1):36-46.e4.
Duffy, E. W., Hall, M. G., Dillman Carpentier, F. R., Musicus, A. A., Meyer, M. L., Rimm, E., & Smith Taillie, L. (2021). Nutrition Claims on Fruit Drinks Are Inconsistent Indicators of Nutritional Profile: A Content Analysis of Fruit Drinks Purchased by Households With Young Children. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 121(1), 36-e4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2020.08.009
Duffy EW, et al. Nutrition Claims On Fruit Drinks Are Inconsistent Indicators of Nutritional Profile: a Content Analysis of Fruit Drinks Purchased By Households With Young Children. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2021;121(1):36-46.e4. PubMed PMID: 32978105.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Nutrition Claims on Fruit Drinks Are Inconsistent Indicators of Nutritional Profile: A Content Analysis of Fruit Drinks Purchased by Households With Young Children. AU - Duffy,Emily W, AU - Hall,Marissa G, AU - Dillman Carpentier,Francesca R, AU - Musicus,Aviva A, AU - Meyer,Michele L, AU - Rimm,Eric, AU - Smith Taillie,Lindsey, Y1 - 2020/09/22/ PY - 2020/01/23/received PY - 2020/07/30/revised PY - 2020/08/05/accepted PY - 2020/9/27/pubmed PY - 2021/5/21/medline PY - 2020/9/26/entrez KW - Content analysis KW - Fruit drink KW - Marketing KW - Nutrition claims KW - Sugar-sweetened beverage SP - 36 EP - 46.e4 JF - Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics JO - J Acad Nutr Diet VL - 121 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Fruit drinks are the most commonly consumed sugar-sweetened beverage among young children. Fruit drinks carry many nutrition-related claims on the front of package (FOP). Nutrition-related claims affect individuals' perceptions of the healthfulness of products and purchase intentions, often creating a "health halo" effect. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of FOP nutrition-related claims on fruit drinks purchased by households with young children and to examine the association between claims and the nutritional profile of fruit drinks. DESIGN: The sample included 2059 fruit drinks purchased by households with children 0 to 5 years old participating in Nielsen Homescan in 2017. FOP labels were obtained from 2 databases that contain bar code-level information on all printed material on product labels. A codebook was used to code for presence of FOP nutrition-related claims. The coded claims data were linked by bar code with Nutrition Facts label data. Claim type prevalence was calculated, and the association between claim types and median calories and total grams of sugar per 100 mL was analyzed using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. The percentages of products containing noncaloric sweeteners (NCSs) with and without each claim type were also calculated and compared. RESULTS: Almost all (97%) fruit drinks sampled had at least 1 nutrition-related FOP claim. Implied natural claims such as "natural flavors" were the most common (55% of products), followed by claims about the presence of juice or nectar (49%). Claims about vitamin C (33%), sugar (29%), and calories (23%) were also common. Fruit drinks with vitamin C, juice or nectar, fruit or fruit flavor, and overt natural claims were higher in calories and sugar and less likely to contain NCSs compared with products without these claims. Fruit drinks with calorie, sugar, NCS, implied natural, and other claims were lower in calories and sugar and more likely to contain NCSs compared with products without these claims. CONCLUSIONS: Claims are prevalent on fruit drinks purchased by households with young children. This is concerning given prior research demonstrating that claims can mislead consumers. Regulatory actions such as requiring a warning or disclosure on drinks that contain added sugars or NCSs should be considered. SN - 2212-2672 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32978105/Nutrition_Claims_on_Fruit_Drinks_Are_Inconsistent_Indicators_of_Nutritional_Profile:_A_Content_Analysis_of_Fruit_Drinks_Purchased_by_Households_With_Young_Children_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212-2672(20)31056-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -