Towards accelerated quantitative sodium MRI at 7 T in the skeletal muscle: Comparison of anisotropic acquisition- and compressed sensing techniques.Magn Reson Imaging. 2020 Sep 23 [Online ahead of print]MR
To compare three anisotropic acquisition schemes and three compressed sensing (CS) approaches for accelerated tissue sodium concentration (TSC) quantification using 23Na MRI at 7 T.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Three anisotropic 3D-radial acquisition sequences were evaluated using simulations, phantom- and in vivo TSC measurements: An anisotropic density-adapted 3D-radial sequence (3DPR-C), a 3D acquisition-weighted density-adapted stack-of-stars sampling scheme (SOS) and an SOS approach with golden-ratio rotation (SOS-GR). Eight healthy volunteers were examined at a 7 Tesla MRI system. TSC measurements of the calf were conducted with a nominal spatial resolution of Δx = (3.0 × 3.0 × 15.0) mm3 and a field of view of (156.0 × 156.0 × 240.0) mm3 for multiple undersampling factors (USF). Three CS reconstructions were evaluated: Total variation CS (TV-CS), 3D Dictionary-Learning compressed sensing (3D-DLCS) and TV-CS with a block matching prior (TV-BL-CS). Results of the simulations and measurements were compared to a simulated ground truth (GT) or a fully sampled reference measurement (FS), respectively. The deviation of the mean TSC evaluated in multiple ROI (mEGT/FS) and the Normalized-Root-Mean-Squared-Error (NRMSE) for simulations were evaluated for CS and NUFFT reconstructions.
In simulations, the SOS-GR yielded the lowest NRMSE and mEGT (< 4%) for an acquisition time (TA) of less than 2 min. CS further improved the results. In simulations and measurements, the best TSC quantification results were obtained with 3D-DLCS and SOS-GR (lowest NRMSE, mEGT < 2.6% in simulations, mEGT < 10.7% for phantom measurements and mEFS < 6 % in vivo) with an USF = 4.1 (TA < 2 min). TV-CS showed no or only slight improvements to NUFFT. The results of TV-BL-CS were similar to 3D-DLCS.
The TA for TSC measurements could be reduced to less than 2 min. by using adapted sequences such as SOS-GR and CS reconstruction approaches such as 3D-DLCS or TV-BL-CS, while the quantitative accuracy stays comparable to a fully sampled NUFFT reconstruction (approx. 8 min. TA). In future, the lower TA could improve clinical applicability of TSC measurements.