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Acute and sub-chronic toxicity evaluation of the crude methanolic extract of Diospyros mespiliformis hochst ex a. Dc (ebenaceae) and its fractions.
Toxicol Rep. 2020; 7:1138-1144.TR

Abstract

Diospyros mespiliformis, commonly called Jackal berry or African ebony, belongs to the plant family, Ebenaceae. The roots, barks and leaves have been used traditionally to treat wide varieties of conditions, however, there is limited information and literature reports concerning the toxicity and safety of this plant. The present study was conducted to evaluate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the crude methanolic extract of Diospyros mespiliformis and its fraction in Wistar rats. Diospyros mespiliformis was extracted by methanol 96 %. The crude methanolic extract was then fractionated into low, average and high polar compounds using hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol respectively. For the acute toxicity study, the revised limit Dose Test of "Up and Down" procedure according to the OECD guideline was used to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of the crude methanolic leaf and bark extracts using a single fixed dose (5 g/kg) of the extracts administered by oral-gavage sequentially to 5 female Wistar rats. The rats were observed for instant death and toxicity signs for 24 h and then daily for 14 days. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, the bark and leaf ethyl acetate fractions (extract) was administered orally at doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg bw /day respectively for 28 days to healthy Wistar rats. At the end of the experimental period, body weight, certain haematological, serum biochemical and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results showed that acute oral administration of crude methanolic extract of Diospyros mespiliformis (5 g/kg bw) produced neither mortality nor visible changes in behavior or any other physiological activities and indicated that the LD50 of crude methanolic leaf and bark extract was greater than 5 g/kg bw in Wistar Rats. In the 28-days repeated dose oral toxicity study, no significant toxic effects was detected in any of the parameters evaluated. In conclusion, the crude methanolic extract was found safe in the acute toxicity study and the ethyl acetate fraction of Diospyros mespiliformis in the sub chronic study in rats could be safe for therapeutic purposes over a period not exceeding 28 days.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria. Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.Department of Veterinary Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32983901

Citation

Ebbo, A A., et al. "Acute and Sub-chronic Toxicity Evaluation of the Crude Methanolic Extract of Diospyros Mespiliformis Hochst Ex A. Dc (ebenaceae) and Its Fractions." Toxicology Reports, vol. 7, 2020, pp. 1138-1144.
Ebbo AA, Sani D, Suleiman MM, et al. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity evaluation of the crude methanolic extract of Diospyros mespiliformis hochst ex a. Dc (ebenaceae) and its fractions. Toxicology reports. 2020;7:1138-1144.
Ebbo, A. A., Sani, D., Suleiman, M. M., Ahmad, A., & Hassan, A. Z. (2020). Acute and sub-chronic toxicity evaluation of the crude methanolic extract of Diospyros mespiliformis hochst ex a. Dc (ebenaceae) and its fractions. Toxicology Reports, 7, 1138-1144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2020.08.028
Ebbo AA, et al. Acute and Sub-chronic Toxicity Evaluation of the Crude Methanolic Extract of Diospyros Mespiliformis Hochst Ex A. Dc (ebenaceae) and Its Fractions. Toxicology reports. 2020;7:1138-1144. PubMed PMID: 32983901.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Acute and sub-chronic toxicity evaluation of the crude methanolic extract of Diospyros mespiliformis hochst ex a. Dc (ebenaceae) and its fractions. AU - Ebbo,A A, AU - Sani,D, AU - Suleiman,M M, AU - Ahmad,A, AU - Hassan,A Z, Y1 - 2020/09/01/ PY - 2019/02/15/received PY - 2020/07/21/revised PY - 2020/08/11/accepted PY - 2020/9/28/entrez PY - 2020/9/29/pubmed PY - 2020/9/29/medline KW - ALP, alkaline phosphatase KW - ALT, alanine aminotransferase KW - ANOVA, analysis of variance KW - AST, aspartate aminotransferase KW - DW, Distilled water KW - Diospyros mespiliformis KW - EDTA, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid KW - Ethyl acetate KW - HEL, H and E haematoxylin and eosin KW - K+, potassium KW - LD50, median lethal dose KW - MCH, Mean corpuscular haemoglobin KW - MCHC, Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration KW - MCV, Mean corpuscular volume KW - Median lethal dose KW - NC, normal control KW - Na+, sodium KW - OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development KW - PCV, Packed cell volume KW - RBC, Red blood cells KW - Repeated dose toxicity KW - SEM, standard error of mean KW - TB, Total bilirubin KW - TC, Total cholesterol KW - UDP, Up and Down” Procedure KW - UDU, Usmanu Danfodiyo University KW - WBC, White blood cells KW - WHO, world health organization SP - 1138 EP - 1144 JF - Toxicology reports VL - 7 N2 - Diospyros mespiliformis, commonly called Jackal berry or African ebony, belongs to the plant family, Ebenaceae. The roots, barks and leaves have been used traditionally to treat wide varieties of conditions, however, there is limited information and literature reports concerning the toxicity and safety of this plant. The present study was conducted to evaluate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the crude methanolic extract of Diospyros mespiliformis and its fraction in Wistar rats. Diospyros mespiliformis was extracted by methanol 96 %. The crude methanolic extract was then fractionated into low, average and high polar compounds using hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol respectively. For the acute toxicity study, the revised limit Dose Test of "Up and Down" procedure according to the OECD guideline was used to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of the crude methanolic leaf and bark extracts using a single fixed dose (5 g/kg) of the extracts administered by oral-gavage sequentially to 5 female Wistar rats. The rats were observed for instant death and toxicity signs for 24 h and then daily for 14 days. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, the bark and leaf ethyl acetate fractions (extract) was administered orally at doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg bw /day respectively for 28 days to healthy Wistar rats. At the end of the experimental period, body weight, certain haematological, serum biochemical and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results showed that acute oral administration of crude methanolic extract of Diospyros mespiliformis (5 g/kg bw) produced neither mortality nor visible changes in behavior or any other physiological activities and indicated that the LD50 of crude methanolic leaf and bark extract was greater than 5 g/kg bw in Wistar Rats. In the 28-days repeated dose oral toxicity study, no significant toxic effects was detected in any of the parameters evaluated. In conclusion, the crude methanolic extract was found safe in the acute toxicity study and the ethyl acetate fraction of Diospyros mespiliformis in the sub chronic study in rats could be safe for therapeutic purposes over a period not exceeding 28 days. SN - 2214-7500 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32983901/Acute_and_sub_chronic_toxicity_evaluation_of_the_crude_methanolic_extract_of_Diospyros_mespiliformis_hochst_ex_a__Dc__ebenaceae__and_its_fractions_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2214-7500(20)30390-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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