Comparison of clinical characteristics between coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and community-acquired pneumonia.Curr Med Res Opin. 2020 11; 36(11):1747-1752.CM
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has high morbidity and mortality, and spreads rapidly in the community to result in a large number of infection cases. This study aimed to compare clinical features in adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia to those in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
Clinical presentations, laboratory findings, imaging features, complications, treatment and outcomes were compared between patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and patients with CAP. The study group of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia consisted of 120 patients. One hundred and thirty-four patients with CAP were enrolled for comparison.
Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia had lower levels of abnormal laboratory parameters (white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, procalcitonin level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level) and more extensive radiographic involvement. More severe respiratory compromise resulted in a higher rate of intensive care unit admission, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and mechanical ventilation (36% vs 15%, 34% vs 15% and 32% vs 12%, respectively; all p < .05). The 30 day mortality was more than twice as high in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (12% versus 5%; p = .063), despite not reaching a statistically significant difference.
Lower levels of abnormal laboratory parameters, more extensive radiographic involvement, more severe respiratory compromise, and higher rates of ICU admission, ARDS and mechanical ventilation are key characteristics that distinguish patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia from patients with CAP.