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Safety and Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 Vaccine in Older Adults.
N Engl J Med. 2020 Sep 29 [Online ahead of print]NEJM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Testing of vaccine candidates to prevent infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in an older population is important, since increased incidences of illness and death from coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have been associated with an older age.

METHODS

We conducted a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial of a messenger RNA vaccine, mRNA-1273, which encodes the stabilized prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-2P) in healthy adults. The trial was expanded to include 40 older adults, who were stratified according to age (56 to 70 years or ≥71 years). All the participants were assigned sequentially to receive two doses of either 25 μg or 100 μg of vaccine administered 28 days apart.

RESULTS

Solicited adverse events were predominantly mild or moderate in severity and most frequently included fatigue, chills, headache, myalgia, and pain at the injection site. Such adverse events were dose-dependent and were more common after the second immunization. Binding-antibody responses increased rapidly after the first immunization. By day 57, among the participants who received the 25-μg dose, the anti-S-2P geometric mean titer (GMT) was 323,945 among those between the ages of 56 and 70 years and 1,128,391 among those who were 71 years of age or older; among the participants who received the 100-μg dose, the GMT in the two age subgroups was 1,183,066 and 3,638,522, respectively. After the second immunization, serum neutralizing activity was detected in all the participants by multiple methods. Binding- and neutralizing-antibody responses appeared to be similar to those previously reported among vaccine recipients between the ages of 18 and 55 years and were above the median of a panel of controls who had donated convalescent serum. The vaccine elicited a strong CD4 cytokine response involving type 1 helper T cells.

CONCLUSIONS

In this small study involving older adults, adverse events associated with the mRNA-1273 vaccine were mainly mild or moderate. The 100-μg dose induced higher binding- and neutralizing-antibody titers than the 25-μg dose, which supports the use of the 100-μg dose in a phase 3 vaccine trial. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; mRNA-1273 Study ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04283461.).

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).From the Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (E.J.A., V.V.E., K.F., M.S.S., C.A.R.), and Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University (M.S.S.), Atlanta, and Hope Clinic, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur (E.J.A., N.G.R., V.K.P.) - both in Georgia; the Vaccine Research Center (A.T.W., A.B.M., B.F., B.C.L., N.A.D.-R., S.O., S.D.S., K.S.C., P.A.S., M.P., J.E.L., B.S.G.) and the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (P.C.R., M. Makhene, W.B., C.J.L., J.H.B.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.M.N.), and the Emmes Company, Rockville (M. Makowski, J.A., K.C.) - all in Maryland; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle (L.A.J.); the Department of Pediatrics (J.D.C., M.R.D., L.J.S., A.J.P.), the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (J.D.C., M.R.D., A.J.P.), and the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (M.R.D.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville; Moderna, Cambridge, MA (H.B., B.L.); and the Departments of Epidemiology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (D.R.M., R.B.).No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32991794

Citation

Anderson, Evan J., et al. "Safety and Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 Vaccine in Older Adults." The New England Journal of Medicine, 2020.
Anderson EJ, Rouphael NG, Widge AT, et al. Safety and Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 Vaccine in Older Adults. N Engl J Med. 2020.
Anderson, E. J., Rouphael, N. G., Widge, A. T., Jackson, L. A., Roberts, P. C., Makhene, M., Chappell, J. D., Denison, M. R., Stevens, L. J., Pruijssers, A. J., McDermott, A. B., Flach, B., Lin, B. C., Doria-Rose, N. A., O'Dell, S., Schmidt, S. D., Corbett, K. S., Swanson, P. A., Padilla, M., ... Beigel, J. H. (2020). Safety and Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 Vaccine in Older Adults. The New England Journal of Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2028436
Anderson EJ, et al. Safety and Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 Vaccine in Older Adults. N Engl J Med. 2020 Sep 29; PubMed PMID: 32991794.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Safety and Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 Vaccine in Older Adults. AU - Anderson,Evan J, AU - Rouphael,Nadine G, AU - Widge,Alicia T, AU - Jackson,Lisa A, AU - Roberts,Paul C, AU - Makhene,Mamodikoe, AU - Chappell,James D, AU - Denison,Mark R, AU - Stevens,Laura J, AU - Pruijssers,Andrea J, AU - McDermott,Adrian B, AU - Flach,Britta, AU - Lin,Bob C, AU - Doria-Rose,Nicole A, AU - O'Dell,Sijy, AU - Schmidt,Stephen D, AU - Corbett,Kizzmekia S, AU - Swanson,Phillip A,2nd AU - Padilla,Marcelino, AU - Neuzil,Kathy M, AU - Bennett,Hamilton, AU - Leav,Brett, AU - Makowski,Mat, AU - Albert,Jim, AU - Cross,Kaitlyn, AU - Edara,Venkata Viswanadh, AU - Floyd,Katharine, AU - Suthar,Mehul S, AU - Martinez,David R, AU - Baric,Ralph, AU - Buchanan,Wendy, AU - Luke,Catherine J, AU - Phadke,Varun K, AU - Rostad,Christina A, AU - Ledgerwood,Julie E, AU - Graham,Barney S, AU - Beigel,John H, AU - ,, Y1 - 2020/09/29/ PY - 2020/9/29/entrez PY - 2020/9/30/pubmed PY - 2020/9/30/medline JF - The New England journal of medicine JO - N Engl J Med N2 - BACKGROUND: Testing of vaccine candidates to prevent infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in an older population is important, since increased incidences of illness and death from coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have been associated with an older age. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial of a messenger RNA vaccine, mRNA-1273, which encodes the stabilized prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-2P) in healthy adults. The trial was expanded to include 40 older adults, who were stratified according to age (56 to 70 years or ≥71 years). All the participants were assigned sequentially to receive two doses of either 25 μg or 100 μg of vaccine administered 28 days apart. RESULTS: Solicited adverse events were predominantly mild or moderate in severity and most frequently included fatigue, chills, headache, myalgia, and pain at the injection site. Such adverse events were dose-dependent and were more common after the second immunization. Binding-antibody responses increased rapidly after the first immunization. By day 57, among the participants who received the 25-μg dose, the anti-S-2P geometric mean titer (GMT) was 323,945 among those between the ages of 56 and 70 years and 1,128,391 among those who were 71 years of age or older; among the participants who received the 100-μg dose, the GMT in the two age subgroups was 1,183,066 and 3,638,522, respectively. After the second immunization, serum neutralizing activity was detected in all the participants by multiple methods. Binding- and neutralizing-antibody responses appeared to be similar to those previously reported among vaccine recipients between the ages of 18 and 55 years and were above the median of a panel of controls who had donated convalescent serum. The vaccine elicited a strong CD4 cytokine response involving type 1 helper T cells. CONCLUSIONS: In this small study involving older adults, adverse events associated with the mRNA-1273 vaccine were mainly mild or moderate. The 100-μg dose induced higher binding- and neutralizing-antibody titers than the 25-μg dose, which supports the use of the 100-μg dose in a phase 3 vaccine trial. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; mRNA-1273 Study ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04283461.). SN - 1533-4406 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32991794/full_citation L2 - https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa2028436?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -