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Retinal biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID): implication for early diagnosis and prognosis.
Geroscience. 2020 12; 42(6):1499-1525.G

Abstract

Cognitive impairment and dementia are major medical, social, and economic public health issues worldwide with significant implications for life quality in older adults. The leading causes are Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular cognitive impairment/dementia (VCID). In both conditions, pathological alterations of the cerebral microcirculation play a critical pathogenic role. Currently, the main pathological biomarkers of AD-β-amyloid peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins-are detected either through cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or PET examination. Nevertheless, given that they are invasive and expensive procedures, their availability is limited. Being part of the central nervous system, the retina offers a unique and easy method to study both neurodegenerative disorders and cerebral small vessel diseases in vivo. Over the past few decades, a number of novel approaches in retinal imaging have been developed that may allow physicians and researchers to gain insights into the genesis and progression of cerebromicrovascular pathologies. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT angiography, fundus photography, and dynamic vessel analyzer (DVA) are new imaging methods providing quantitative assessment of retinal structural and vascular indicators-such as thickness of the inner retinal layers, retinal vessel density, foveal avascular zone area, tortuosity and fractal dimension of retinal vessels, and microvascular dysfunction-for cognitive impairment and dementia. Should further studies need to be conducted, these retinal alterations may prove to be useful biomarkers for screening and monitoring dementia progression in clinical routine. In this review, we seek to highlight recent findings and current knowledge regarding the application of retinal biomarkers in dementia assessment.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Ophthalmology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.Department of Neurology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.Translational Geroscience Laboratory, Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging/Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging/Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. International Training Program in Geroscience, Doctoral School of Basic and Translational Medicine/Department of Public Health, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. International Training Program in Geroscience, Theoretical Medicine Doctoral School/Departments of Medical Physics and Informatics & Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary. Department of Health Promotion Sciences, College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.Translational Geroscience Laboratory, Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging/Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging/Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. International Training Program in Geroscience, Theoretical Medicine Doctoral School/Departments of Medical Physics and Informatics & Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.Translational Geroscience Laboratory, Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging/Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging/Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. Department of Health Promotion Sciences, College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. Oklahoma Center for Neuroscience, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.Translational Geroscience Laboratory, Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging/Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging/Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. International Training Program in Geroscience, Doctoral School of Basic and Translational Medicine/Department of Public Health, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.Translational Geroscience Laboratory, Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging/Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging/Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. Department of Ophthalmology, Josa Andras Hospital, Nyiregyhaza, Hungary.Department of Ophthalmology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.Department of Ophthalmology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.Department of Ophthalmology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.Department of Ophthalmology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.Department of Ophthalmology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.Department of Ophthalmology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. kovacs.illes@med.semmelweis-univ.hu. Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York City, NY, USA. kovacs.illes@med.semmelweis-univ.hu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33011937

Citation

Czakó, Cecilia, et al. "Retinal Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (VCID): Implication for Early Diagnosis and Prognosis." GeroScience, vol. 42, no. 6, 2020, pp. 1499-1525.
Czakó C, Kovács T, Ungvari Z, et al. Retinal biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID): implication for early diagnosis and prognosis. Geroscience. 2020;42(6):1499-1525.
Czakó, C., Kovács, T., Ungvari, Z., Csiszar, A., Yabluchanskiy, A., Conley, S., Csipo, T., Lipecz, A., Horváth, H., Sándor, G. L., István, L., Logan, T., Nagy, Z. Z., & Kovács, I. (2020). Retinal biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID): implication for early diagnosis and prognosis. GeroScience, 42(6), 1499-1525. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-020-00252-7
Czakó C, et al. Retinal Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (VCID): Implication for Early Diagnosis and Prognosis. Geroscience. 2020;42(6):1499-1525. PubMed PMID: 33011937.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Retinal biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID): implication for early diagnosis and prognosis. AU - Czakó,Cecilia, AU - Kovács,Tibor, AU - Ungvari,Zoltan, AU - Csiszar,Anna, AU - Yabluchanskiy,Andriy, AU - Conley,Shannon, AU - Csipo,Tamas, AU - Lipecz,Agnes, AU - Horváth,Hajnalka, AU - Sándor,Gábor László, AU - István,Lilla, AU - Logan,Trevor, AU - Nagy,Zoltán Zsolt, AU - Kovács,Illés, Y1 - 2020/10/04/ PY - 2020/05/25/received PY - 2020/08/10/accepted PY - 2020/10/5/pubmed PY - 2021/4/28/medline PY - 2020/10/4/entrez KW - Alzheimer’s disease KW - Dementia KW - OCT angiography KW - Retinal biomarkers KW - Retinal imaging SP - 1499 EP - 1525 JF - GeroScience JO - Geroscience VL - 42 IS - 6 N2 - Cognitive impairment and dementia are major medical, social, and economic public health issues worldwide with significant implications for life quality in older adults. The leading causes are Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular cognitive impairment/dementia (VCID). In both conditions, pathological alterations of the cerebral microcirculation play a critical pathogenic role. Currently, the main pathological biomarkers of AD-β-amyloid peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins-are detected either through cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or PET examination. Nevertheless, given that they are invasive and expensive procedures, their availability is limited. Being part of the central nervous system, the retina offers a unique and easy method to study both neurodegenerative disorders and cerebral small vessel diseases in vivo. Over the past few decades, a number of novel approaches in retinal imaging have been developed that may allow physicians and researchers to gain insights into the genesis and progression of cerebromicrovascular pathologies. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT angiography, fundus photography, and dynamic vessel analyzer (DVA) are new imaging methods providing quantitative assessment of retinal structural and vascular indicators-such as thickness of the inner retinal layers, retinal vessel density, foveal avascular zone area, tortuosity and fractal dimension of retinal vessels, and microvascular dysfunction-for cognitive impairment and dementia. Should further studies need to be conducted, these retinal alterations may prove to be useful biomarkers for screening and monitoring dementia progression in clinical routine. In this review, we seek to highlight recent findings and current knowledge regarding the application of retinal biomarkers in dementia assessment. SN - 2509-2723 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33011937/Retinal_biomarkers_for_Alzheimer's_disease_and_vascular_cognitive_impairment_and_dementia__VCID_:_implication_for_early_diagnosis_and_prognosis_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-020-00252-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -