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The effect of temperature on persistence of SARS-CoV-2 on common surfaces.
Virol J. 2020 10 07; 17(1):145.VJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The rate at which COVID-19 has spread throughout the globe has been alarming. While the role of fomite transmission is not yet fully understood, precise data on the environmental stability of SARS-CoV-2 is required to determine the risks of fomite transmission from contaminated surfaces.

METHODS

This study measured the survival rates of infectious SARS-CoV-2, suspended in a standard ASTM E2197 matrix, on several common surface types. All experiments were carried out in the dark, to negate any effects of UV light. Inoculated surfaces were incubated at 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C and sampled at various time points.

RESULTS

Survival rates of SARS-CoV-2 were determined at different temperatures and D-values, Z-values and half-life were calculated. We obtained half lives of between 1.7 and 2.7 days at 20 °C, reducing to a few hours when temperature was elevated to 40 °C. With initial viral loads broadly equivalent to the highest titres excreted by infectious patients, viable virus was isolated for up to 28 days at 20 °C from common surfaces such as glass, stainless steel and both paper and polymer banknotes. Conversely, infectious virus survived less than 24 h at 40 °C on some surfaces.

CONCLUSION

These findings demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 can remain infectious for significantly longer time periods than generally considered possible. These results could be used to inform improved risk mitigation procedures to prevent the fomite spread of COVID-19.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness, Geelong, VIC, Australia. Shane.Riddell@csiro.au.Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness, Geelong, VIC, Australia.Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness, Geelong, VIC, Australia.Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness, Geelong, VIC, Australia.Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness, Geelong, VIC, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33028356

Citation

Riddell, Shane, et al. "The Effect of Temperature On Persistence of SARS-CoV-2 On Common Surfaces." Virology Journal, vol. 17, no. 1, 2020, p. 145.
Riddell S, Goldie S, Hill A, et al. The effect of temperature on persistence of SARS-CoV-2 on common surfaces. Virol J. 2020;17(1):145.
Riddell, S., Goldie, S., Hill, A., Eagles, D., & Drew, T. W. (2020). The effect of temperature on persistence of SARS-CoV-2 on common surfaces. Virology Journal, 17(1), 145. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-020-01418-7
Riddell S, et al. The Effect of Temperature On Persistence of SARS-CoV-2 On Common Surfaces. Virol J. 2020 10 7;17(1):145. PubMed PMID: 33028356.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The effect of temperature on persistence of SARS-CoV-2 on common surfaces. AU - Riddell,Shane, AU - Goldie,Sarah, AU - Hill,Andrew, AU - Eagles,Debbie, AU - Drew,Trevor W, Y1 - 2020/10/07/ PY - 2020/08/07/received PY - 2020/09/22/accepted PY - 2020/10/8/entrez PY - 2020/10/9/pubmed PY - 2020/10/27/medline KW - COVID-19 KW - Environmental stability KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - Survivability SP - 145 EP - 145 JF - Virology journal JO - Virol J VL - 17 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: The rate at which COVID-19 has spread throughout the globe has been alarming. While the role of fomite transmission is not yet fully understood, precise data on the environmental stability of SARS-CoV-2 is required to determine the risks of fomite transmission from contaminated surfaces. METHODS: This study measured the survival rates of infectious SARS-CoV-2, suspended in a standard ASTM E2197 matrix, on several common surface types. All experiments were carried out in the dark, to negate any effects of UV light. Inoculated surfaces were incubated at 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C and sampled at various time points. RESULTS: Survival rates of SARS-CoV-2 were determined at different temperatures and D-values, Z-values and half-life were calculated. We obtained half lives of between 1.7 and 2.7 days at 20 °C, reducing to a few hours when temperature was elevated to 40 °C. With initial viral loads broadly equivalent to the highest titres excreted by infectious patients, viable virus was isolated for up to 28 days at 20 °C from common surfaces such as glass, stainless steel and both paper and polymer banknotes. Conversely, infectious virus survived less than 24 h at 40 °C on some surfaces. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 can remain infectious for significantly longer time periods than generally considered possible. These results could be used to inform improved risk mitigation procedures to prevent the fomite spread of COVID-19. SN - 1743-422X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33028356/The_effect_of_temperature_on_persistence_of_SARS_CoV_2_on_common_surfaces_ L2 - https://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12985-020-01418-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -