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Role of ACE2 receptor and the landscape of treatment options from convalescent plasma therapy to the drug repurposing in COVID-19.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2021 Feb; 476(2):553-574.MC

Abstract

Since the first case reports in Wuhan, China, the SARS-CoV-2 has caused a pandemic and took lives of > 8,35,000 people globally. This single-stranded RNA virus uses Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor for entry into the host cell. Overexpression of ACE2 is mainly observed in hypertensive, diabetic and heart patients that make them prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mitigations strategies were opted globally by the governments to minimize transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via the implementation of social distancing norms, wearing the facemasks, and spreading awareness using digital platforms. The lack of an approved drug treatment regimen, and non-availability of a vaccine, collectively posed a challenge for mankind to fight against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In this scenario, repurposing of existing drugs and old treatment options like convalescent plasma therapy can be one of the potential alternatives to treat the disease. The drug repurposing provides a selection of drugs based on the scientific rationale and with a shorter cycle of clinical trials, while plasma isolated from COVID-19 recovered patients can be a good source of neutralizing antibody to provide passive immunity. In this review, we provide in-depth analysis on these two approaches currently opted all around the world to treat COVID-19 patients. For this, we used "Boolean Operators" such as AND, OR & NOT to search relevant research articles/reviews from the PUBMED for the repurposed drugs and the convalescent plasma in the COVID-19 treatment. The repurposed drugs like Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Tenofovir, Remdesivir, Ribavirin, Darunavir, Oseltamivir, Arbidol (Umifenovir), Favipiravir, Anakinra, and Baricitinib are already being used in clinical trials to treat the COVID-19 patients. These drugs have been approved for a different indication and belong to a diverse category such as anti-malarial/anti-parasitic, anti-retroviral/anti-viral, anti-cancer, or against rheumatoid arthritis. Although, the vaccine would be an ideal option for providing active immunity against the SARS-CoV-2, but considering the current situation, drug repurposing and convalescent plasma therapy and repurposed drugs are the most viable option against SARS-CoV-2.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Life & Allied Health Sciences, The Glocal University, Saharanpur, UP, India.Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Amity Medical School, Amity University Haryana, Panchgaon, Manesar, Gurugram, Haryana, India.Amity Stem Cell Institute, Amity Medical School, Amity University Haryana, Panchgaon, Manesar, Gurugram, Haryana, 122413, India.Department of Biotechnology, Thapar Institute of Engineering & Technology, Patiala, Punjab, India.Amity Stem Cell Institute, Amity Medical School, Amity University Haryana, Panchgaon, Manesar, Gurugram, Haryana, 122413, India.School of Life & Allied Health Sciences, The Glocal University, Saharanpur, UP, India.Amity Stem Cell Institute, Amity Medical School, Amity University Haryana, Panchgaon, Manesar, Gurugram, Haryana, 122413, India.National Liver Disease Biobank, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India.Centre for Science & Society, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal, India. Innovation and Incubation Centre for Entrepreneurship (IICE), Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal, India.Amity Stem Cell Institute, Amity Medical School, Amity University Haryana, Panchgaon, Manesar, Gurugram, Haryana, 122413, India. mkkashyap@ggn.amity.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33029696

Citation

Kumar, Pravindra, et al. "Role of ACE2 Receptor and the Landscape of Treatment Options From Convalescent Plasma Therapy to the Drug Repurposing in COVID-19." Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 476, no. 2, 2021, pp. 553-574.
Kumar P, Sah AK, Tripathi G, et al. Role of ACE2 receptor and the landscape of treatment options from convalescent plasma therapy to the drug repurposing in COVID-19. Mol Cell Biochem. 2021;476(2):553-574.
Kumar, P., Sah, A. K., Tripathi, G., Kashyap, A., Tripathi, A., Rao, R., Mishra, P. C., Mallick, K., Husain, A., & Kashyap, M. K. (2021). Role of ACE2 receptor and the landscape of treatment options from convalescent plasma therapy to the drug repurposing in COVID-19. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 476(2), 553-574. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-020-03924-2
Kumar P, et al. Role of ACE2 Receptor and the Landscape of Treatment Options From Convalescent Plasma Therapy to the Drug Repurposing in COVID-19. Mol Cell Biochem. 2021;476(2):553-574. PubMed PMID: 33029696.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Role of ACE2 receptor and the landscape of treatment options from convalescent plasma therapy to the drug repurposing in COVID-19. AU - Kumar,Pravindra, AU - Sah,Ashok Kumar, AU - Tripathi,Greesham, AU - Kashyap,Anjali, AU - Tripathi,Avantika, AU - Rao,Rashmi, AU - Mishra,Prabhu C, AU - Mallick,Koustav, AU - Husain,Amjad, AU - Kashyap,Manoj Kumar, Y1 - 2020/10/07/ PY - 2020/08/05/received PY - 2020/09/19/accepted PY - 2020/10/9/pubmed PY - 2021/2/13/medline PY - 2020/10/8/entrez KW - ARDS KW - Cytokine storm syndrome KW - Herd immunity KW - Rheumatoid arthritis KW - Vaccine nationalism KW - Vertical transmission SP - 553 EP - 574 JF - Molecular and cellular biochemistry JO - Mol Cell Biochem VL - 476 IS - 2 N2 - Since the first case reports in Wuhan, China, the SARS-CoV-2 has caused a pandemic and took lives of > 8,35,000 people globally. This single-stranded RNA virus uses Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor for entry into the host cell. Overexpression of ACE2 is mainly observed in hypertensive, diabetic and heart patients that make them prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mitigations strategies were opted globally by the governments to minimize transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via the implementation of social distancing norms, wearing the facemasks, and spreading awareness using digital platforms. The lack of an approved drug treatment regimen, and non-availability of a vaccine, collectively posed a challenge for mankind to fight against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In this scenario, repurposing of existing drugs and old treatment options like convalescent plasma therapy can be one of the potential alternatives to treat the disease. The drug repurposing provides a selection of drugs based on the scientific rationale and with a shorter cycle of clinical trials, while plasma isolated from COVID-19 recovered patients can be a good source of neutralizing antibody to provide passive immunity. In this review, we provide in-depth analysis on these two approaches currently opted all around the world to treat COVID-19 patients. For this, we used "Boolean Operators" such as AND, OR & NOT to search relevant research articles/reviews from the PUBMED for the repurposed drugs and the convalescent plasma in the COVID-19 treatment. The repurposed drugs like Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Tenofovir, Remdesivir, Ribavirin, Darunavir, Oseltamivir, Arbidol (Umifenovir), Favipiravir, Anakinra, and Baricitinib are already being used in clinical trials to treat the COVID-19 patients. These drugs have been approved for a different indication and belong to a diverse category such as anti-malarial/anti-parasitic, anti-retroviral/anti-viral, anti-cancer, or against rheumatoid arthritis. Although, the vaccine would be an ideal option for providing active immunity against the SARS-CoV-2, but considering the current situation, drug repurposing and convalescent plasma therapy and repurposed drugs are the most viable option against SARS-CoV-2. SN - 1573-4919 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33029696/Role_of_ACE2_receptor_and_the_landscape_of_treatment_options_from_convalescent_plasma_therapy_to_the_drug_repurposing_in_COVID_19_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-020-03924-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -