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Persistence of serum and saliva antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens in COVID-19 patients.
Sci Immunol. 2020 10 08; 5(52)SI

Abstract

While the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 has been extensively studied in blood, relatively little is known about the antibody response in saliva and its relationship to systemic antibody levels. Here, we profiled by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) IgG, IgA and IgM responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (full length trimer) and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) in serum and saliva of acute and convalescent patients with laboratory-diagnosed COVID-19 ranging from 3-115 days post-symptom onset (PSO), compared to negative controls. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses were readily detected in serum and saliva, with peak IgG levels attained by 16-30 days PSO. Longitudinal analysis revealed that anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgM antibodies rapidly decayed, while IgG antibodies remained relatively stable up to 105 days PSO in both biofluids. Lastly, IgG, IgM and to a lesser extent IgA responses to spike and RBD in the serum positively correlated with matched saliva samples. This study confirms that serum and saliva IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are maintained in the majority of COVID-19 patients for at least 3 months PSO. IgG responses in saliva may serve as a surrogate measure of systemic immunity to SARS-CoV-2 based on their correlation with serum IgG responses.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada. Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Department of Microbiology, at Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada.Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada.Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada.Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Combined Containment Level 3 Unit, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Mammalian Cell Expression, Human Health Therapeutics Research Centre, National Research Council Canada, Montréal, QC, Canada.Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada.Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada.Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Combined Containment Level 3 Unit, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Department of Microbiology, at Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada.Department of Microbiology, at Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada.Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.College of Dentistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada.Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada. Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada.Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada. Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Department of Laboratory Medicine and Molecular Diagnostics, Division of Microbiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre; Biological Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute; and Division of Infectious Diseases, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Combined Containment Level 3 Unit, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Canadian Blood Services, Edmonton, AB & Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.College of Dentistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada.Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute. Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Mammalian Cell Expression, Human Health Therapeutics Research Centre, National Research Council Canada, Montréal, QC, Canada.Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada. Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Department of Microbiology, at Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada.Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. jen.gommerman@utoronto.ca gingras@lunenfeld.ca.Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada. jen.gommerman@utoronto.ca gingras@lunenfeld.ca. Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Observational Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33033173

Citation

Isho, Baweleta, et al. "Persistence of Serum and Saliva Antibody Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antigens in COVID-19 Patients." Science Immunology, vol. 5, no. 52, 2020.
Isho B, Abe KT, Zuo M, et al. Persistence of serum and saliva antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens in COVID-19 patients. Sci Immunol. 2020;5(52).
Isho, B., Abe, K. T., Zuo, M., Jamal, A. J., Rathod, B., Wang, J. H., Li, Z., Chao, G., Rojas, O. L., Bang, Y. M., Pu, A., Christie-Holmes, N., Gervais, C., Ceccarelli, D., Samavarchi-Tehrani, P., Guvenc, F., Budylowski, P., Li, A., Paterson, A., ... Gingras, A. C. (2020). Persistence of serum and saliva antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens in COVID-19 patients. Science Immunology, 5(52). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abe5511
Isho B, et al. Persistence of Serum and Saliva Antibody Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antigens in COVID-19 Patients. Sci Immunol. 2020 10 8;5(52) PubMed PMID: 33033173.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Persistence of serum and saliva antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens in COVID-19 patients. AU - Isho,Baweleta, AU - Abe,Kento T, AU - Zuo,Michelle, AU - Jamal,Alainna J, AU - Rathod,Bhavisha, AU - Wang,Jenny H, AU - Li,Zhijie, AU - Chao,Gary, AU - Rojas,Olga L, AU - Bang,Yeo Myong, AU - Pu,Annie, AU - Christie-Holmes,Natasha, AU - Gervais,Christian, AU - Ceccarelli,Derek, AU - Samavarchi-Tehrani,Payman, AU - Guvenc,Furkan, AU - Budylowski,Patrick, AU - Li,Angel, AU - Paterson,Aimee, AU - Yue,Feng Yun, AU - Marin,Lina M, AU - Caldwell,Lauren, AU - Wrana,Jeffrey L, AU - Colwill,Karen, AU - Sicheri,Frank, AU - Mubareka,Samira, AU - Gray-Owen,Scott D, AU - Drews,Steven J, AU - Siqueira,Walter L, AU - Barrios-Rodiles,Miriam, AU - Ostrowski,Mario, AU - Rini,James M, AU - Durocher,Yves, AU - McGeer,Allison J, AU - Gommerman,Jennifer L, AU - Gingras,Anne-Claude, PY - 2020/08/28/received PY - 2020/10/05/accepted PY - 2020/10/9/entrez PY - 2020/10/10/pubmed PY - 2020/10/28/medline JF - Science immunology JO - Sci Immunol VL - 5 IS - 52 N2 - While the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 has been extensively studied in blood, relatively little is known about the antibody response in saliva and its relationship to systemic antibody levels. Here, we profiled by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) IgG, IgA and IgM responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (full length trimer) and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) in serum and saliva of acute and convalescent patients with laboratory-diagnosed COVID-19 ranging from 3-115 days post-symptom onset (PSO), compared to negative controls. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses were readily detected in serum and saliva, with peak IgG levels attained by 16-30 days PSO. Longitudinal analysis revealed that anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgM antibodies rapidly decayed, while IgG antibodies remained relatively stable up to 105 days PSO in both biofluids. Lastly, IgG, IgM and to a lesser extent IgA responses to spike and RBD in the serum positively correlated with matched saliva samples. This study confirms that serum and saliva IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are maintained in the majority of COVID-19 patients for at least 3 months PSO. IgG responses in saliva may serve as a surrogate measure of systemic immunity to SARS-CoV-2 based on their correlation with serum IgG responses. SN - 2470-9468 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33033173/Persistence_of_serum_and_saliva_antibody_responses_to_SARS_CoV_2_spike_antigens_in_COVID_19_patients_ L2 - https://immunology.sciencemag.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=33033173 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -