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Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with differing severities of coronavirus disease 2019.
PLoS One. 2020; 15(10):e0240502.Plos

Abstract

BACKGROUND

A greater understanding of the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in an infected population is important for the development of a vaccination.

AIM

To investigate SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG antibodies in Thai patients with differing severities of COVID-19.

METHODS

Plasma from the following patient groups was examined: 118 adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, 49 patients under investigation (without confirmed infections), 20 patients with other respiratory infections, and 102 healthy control patients. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from EUROIMMUN was performed to assess for IgA and IgG antibodies. The optical density (OD) ratio cutoff for a positive result was 1.1 for IgA and 0.8 for IgG. Additionally, the association of the antibody response with both the severity of disease and the date after onset of symptoms was analyzed.

RESULTS

A total of 289 participants were enrolled and 384 samples analyzed from March 10 to May 31, 2020. Patients were categorized, based on their clinical manifestations, as mild (n = 59), moderate (n = 27), or severe (n = 32). The overall sensitivity of IgA and IgG from the samples collected after day 7 of the symptoms was 87.9% (95% CI: 79.8-93.6) and 84.8% (95% CI: 76.2-91.3), respectively. Compared to the mild group, the severe group had significantly higher levels of spike 1 (S1) antigen-specific IgA and IgG. All patients in the moderate and severe groups had S1-specific IgG, while 20% of the patients in the mild group did not have any IgG detected after two weeks after the onset of symptoms. Interestingly, in the severe group, the SARS-CoV-2 IgG level was significantly higher in males than females (p = 0.003).

CONCLUSION

The serological test for SARS-CoV-2 has a high sensitivity more than two weeks after the onset of illness. Additionally, the serological response differs among patients based on sex as well as the severity of infection.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Applied Medical Virology Research Unit, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Center of Excellence in Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Vaccines, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Center of Excellence in Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Vaccines, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Thai Red Cross Emerging Infectious Diseases Clinical Centre, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.Center of Excellence in Vaccine Research and Development (ChulaVRC), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Center of Excellence in Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Vaccines, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.Thai Red Cross Emerging Infectious Diseases Clinical Centre, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Center of Excellence in Immunology and Immune-mediated Diseases, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33035234

Citation

Kowitdamrong, Ekasit, et al. "Antibody Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Patients With Differing Severities of Coronavirus Disease 2019." PloS One, vol. 15, no. 10, 2020, pp. e0240502.
Kowitdamrong E, Puthanakit T, Jantarabenjakul W, et al. Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with differing severities of coronavirus disease 2019. PLoS One. 2020;15(10):e0240502.
Kowitdamrong, E., Puthanakit, T., Jantarabenjakul, W., Prompetchara, E., Suchartlikitwong, P., Putcharoen, O., & Hirankarn, N. (2020). Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with differing severities of coronavirus disease 2019. PloS One, 15(10), e0240502. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240502
Kowitdamrong E, et al. Antibody Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Patients With Differing Severities of Coronavirus Disease 2019. PLoS One. 2020;15(10):e0240502. PubMed PMID: 33035234.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with differing severities of coronavirus disease 2019. AU - Kowitdamrong,Ekasit, AU - Puthanakit,Thanyawee, AU - Jantarabenjakul,Watsamon, AU - Prompetchara,Eakachai, AU - Suchartlikitwong,Pintip, AU - Putcharoen,Opass, AU - Hirankarn,Nattiya, Y1 - 2020/10/09/ PY - 2020/07/30/received PY - 2020/09/28/accepted PY - 2020/10/9/entrez PY - 2020/10/10/pubmed PY - 2020/10/22/medline SP - e0240502 EP - e0240502 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 15 IS - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND: A greater understanding of the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in an infected population is important for the development of a vaccination. AIM: To investigate SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG antibodies in Thai patients with differing severities of COVID-19. METHODS: Plasma from the following patient groups was examined: 118 adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, 49 patients under investigation (without confirmed infections), 20 patients with other respiratory infections, and 102 healthy control patients. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from EUROIMMUN was performed to assess for IgA and IgG antibodies. The optical density (OD) ratio cutoff for a positive result was 1.1 for IgA and 0.8 for IgG. Additionally, the association of the antibody response with both the severity of disease and the date after onset of symptoms was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 289 participants were enrolled and 384 samples analyzed from March 10 to May 31, 2020. Patients were categorized, based on their clinical manifestations, as mild (n = 59), moderate (n = 27), or severe (n = 32). The overall sensitivity of IgA and IgG from the samples collected after day 7 of the symptoms was 87.9% (95% CI: 79.8-93.6) and 84.8% (95% CI: 76.2-91.3), respectively. Compared to the mild group, the severe group had significantly higher levels of spike 1 (S1) antigen-specific IgA and IgG. All patients in the moderate and severe groups had S1-specific IgG, while 20% of the patients in the mild group did not have any IgG detected after two weeks after the onset of symptoms. Interestingly, in the severe group, the SARS-CoV-2 IgG level was significantly higher in males than females (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: The serological test for SARS-CoV-2 has a high sensitivity more than two weeks after the onset of illness. Additionally, the serological response differs among patients based on sex as well as the severity of infection. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33035234/Antibody_responses_to_SARS_CoV_2_in_patients_with_differing_severities_of_coronavirus_disease_2019_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240502 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -