Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of baloxavir marboxil, a novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor, in a murine model of influenza virus infection.J Antimicrob Chemother. 2021 01 01; 76(1):189-198.JA
Baloxavir acid, the active form of the orally available prodrug baloxavir marboxil, is a novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor of influenza virus. Baloxavir marboxil has been shown to rapidly reduce virus titres compared with oseltamivir in clinical studies.
We investigated the relationship between pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and antiviral activity of baloxavir acid based on virus titre reduction in lungs of infected mice.
BALB/c mice infected with a sub-lethal dose of influenza A(H1N1), A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) or type B virus were treated on day 5 with oral baloxavir marboxil (0.5-50 mg/kg q12h), subcutaneous baloxavir acid (0.25-8 mg/kg/day), oseltamivir phosphate (5 or 50 eq mg/kg q12h) or other antivirals for 1 day. Lung virus titres were assessed 24 h after initial antiviral dosing. PK testing was performed at up to 24 h post-dosing of baloxavir marboxil or baloxavir acid in A/WSN/33-infected mice and the PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) relationship was evaluated for baloxavir acid.
Oral baloxavir marboxil administration showed dose-dependent virus titre reductions in lungs of mice infected with the different types/subtypes of influenza viruses 24 h post-dosing. Baloxavir marboxil at 15 mg/kg q12h resulted in ≥100-fold and ≥10-fold reductions in influenza A and B virus titres, respectively, compared with oseltamivir phosphate. PK/PD analysis showed that the plasma concentration at the end of the dosing interval (Cτ) or the plasma concentration at 24 h after initial dosing (C24) was the PK parameter predicting the virus titres at 24 h post-dosing of baloxavir acid.
PK/PD analysis of baloxavir acid based on virus titre reduction in this mouse model could be helpful in predicting and maximizing virological outcomes in clinical settings.