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Maillard Reaction Intermediates and Related Phytochemicals in Black Garlic Determined by EPR and HPLC Analyses.
Molecules. 2020 Oct 07; 25(19)M

Abstract

The Maillard reaction intermediates and related phytochemicals in garlic (Allium sativum L.), which was heated for various lengths of time, using X-band (9 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were investigated. Non-spin-trap and non-destructive EPR detected the total reaction intermediates (radicals). The g-value of the signal was 2.004. The signal with a peak-to-peak linewidth (ΔHpp) was approximately 0.67 milli Tesla (mT). The values of the intermediates are suggestive of organic compounds. The garlic darkened in color with the increasing number of heating days. Melanoidin, responsible for darkening of the garlic, was detected at an absorbance of 400 nm. Analysis of the correlation between the EPR intensity and melanoidin absorbance showed a good correlation coefficient (0.98). In addition, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) and total phenolic compounds increased with the increasing number of heating days. Moreover, trace amount of Fe3+ was observed in the black garlic by EPR. Non-destructive EPR is a useful method for evaluating not only Maillard reaction intermediates, but also the pigment associated with the reaction processes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Regional Innovation, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-Cho, Hirosaki 036-8564, Japan.Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Bunkyo-Cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561, Japan.Aomori Prefectural Industrial Technology Research Center, Agricultural Products Institute, 91 Kamikita-Gun Rokunohe-Machi Inuotose Yanagisawa, Aomori 033-0071, Japan.Division of Regional Innovation, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-Cho, Hirosaki 036-8564, Japan.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33036452

Citation

Nakagawa, Kouichi, et al. "Maillard Reaction Intermediates and Related Phytochemicals in Black Garlic Determined By EPR and HPLC Analyses." Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 25, no. 19, 2020.
Nakagawa K, Maeda H, Yamaya Y, et al. Maillard Reaction Intermediates and Related Phytochemicals in Black Garlic Determined by EPR and HPLC Analyses. Molecules. 2020;25(19).
Nakagawa, K., Maeda, H., Yamaya, Y., & Tonosaki, Y. (2020). Maillard Reaction Intermediates and Related Phytochemicals in Black Garlic Determined by EPR and HPLC Analyses. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 25(19). https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194578
Nakagawa K, et al. Maillard Reaction Intermediates and Related Phytochemicals in Black Garlic Determined By EPR and HPLC Analyses. Molecules. 2020 Oct 7;25(19) PubMed PMID: 33036452.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Maillard Reaction Intermediates and Related Phytochemicals in Black Garlic Determined by EPR and HPLC Analyses. AU - Nakagawa,Kouichi, AU - Maeda,Hayato, AU - Yamaya,Yoshifumi, AU - Tonosaki,Yudai, Y1 - 2020/10/07/ PY - 2020/09/09/received PY - 2020/10/03/revised PY - 2020/10/06/accepted PY - 2020/10/10/entrez PY - 2020/10/11/pubmed PY - 2021/5/20/medline KW - EPR KW - HPLC KW - Maillard reaction KW - black garlic KW - intermediate KW - radical JF - Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) JO - Molecules VL - 25 IS - 19 N2 - The Maillard reaction intermediates and related phytochemicals in garlic (Allium sativum L.), which was heated for various lengths of time, using X-band (9 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were investigated. Non-spin-trap and non-destructive EPR detected the total reaction intermediates (radicals). The g-value of the signal was 2.004. The signal with a peak-to-peak linewidth (ΔHpp) was approximately 0.67 milli Tesla (mT). The values of the intermediates are suggestive of organic compounds. The garlic darkened in color with the increasing number of heating days. Melanoidin, responsible for darkening of the garlic, was detected at an absorbance of 400 nm. Analysis of the correlation between the EPR intensity and melanoidin absorbance showed a good correlation coefficient (0.98). In addition, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) and total phenolic compounds increased with the increasing number of heating days. Moreover, trace amount of Fe3+ was observed in the black garlic by EPR. Non-destructive EPR is a useful method for evaluating not only Maillard reaction intermediates, but also the pigment associated with the reaction processes. SN - 1420-3049 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33036452/Maillard_Reaction_Intermediates_and_Related_Phytochemicals_in_Black_Garlic_Determined_by_EPR_and_HPLC_Analyses_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=molecules25194578 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -