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A whole blood test to measure SARS-CoV-2-specific response in COVID-19 patients.
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021 Feb; 27(2):286.e7-286.e13.CM

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To examine whether specific T-cell-responses to SARS-CoV-2 peptides can be detected in COVID-19 using a whole-blood experimental setting, which may be further explored as a potential diagnostic tool.

METHODS

We evaluated interferon (IFN)-γ levels after stimulating whole-blood with spike and remainder-antigens peptides megapools (MP) derived from SARS-CoV-2 sequences; interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17A, eotaxin, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IFN-γ, Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also evaluated.

RESULTS

IFN-γ-response to spike and remainder-antigens MPs was significantly increased in 35 COVID-19 patients compared with 29 'no COVID-19' individuals (medians spike-MP: 0.26 vs 0, p = 0.0002; medians remainder-antigens-MP: 0.07 vs 0.02; p = 0.02). This response was detected independently of patients' clinical parameters. IFN-γ-response to SARS-CoV-2-unrelated antigens cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) was similar in COVID-19 compared with 'no COVID-19' individuals (median CMV: 3.46 vs 5.28, p = 0.16; median SEB: 12.68 vs 15.05; p = 0.1). In response to spike-MPs in COVID-19- compared with 'no COVID-19' -individuals, we found significant higher median of IL-2 (50.08 vs 0, p = 0.0018), IFN-γ (90.16 vs 0, p = 0.01), IL-4 (0.52 vs 0, p = 0.03), IL-13 (0.84 vs 0, p = 0.007) and MCP-1 (4602 vs 359.2, p = 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Immune response to SARS-CoV-2 peptides in a whole-blood assay is associated with COVID-19 and it is characterized by both Th1 and Th2 profile. This experimental approach may be useful for developing new T-cell based diagnostic tests for disease and vaccine settings.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Translational Research Unit, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.Translational Research Unit, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.Translational Research Unit, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.Translational Research Unit, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.Translational Research Unit, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.Translational Research Unit, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.Laboratory of Virology, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.Respiratory Infectious Diseases Unit, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.Respiratory Infectious Diseases Unit, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.Respiratory Infectious Diseases Unit, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.Clinical Division of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.Clinical Division of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.HIV/AIDS Department, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.HIV/AIDS Department, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.Central Laboratory of Advanced Diagnosis and Biomedical Research, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; Department of Biomedicine, Neurosciences and Advanced Diagnostic, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.Rheumatology Department, Azienda USL Toscana Centro, Hospital of Prato, Italy.Clinical Epidemiology Unit, National Institute for Infectious Disease "Lazzaro Spallanzani"-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.Scientific Direction, National Institute for Infectious Disease "Lazzaro Spallanzani"-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI), La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.Translational Research Unit, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS, Rome, Italy. Electronic address: delia.goletti@inmi.it.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33045370

Citation

Petrone, Linda, et al. "A Whole Blood Test to Measure SARS-CoV-2-specific Response in COVID-19 Patients." Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 27, no. 2, 2021, pp. 286.e7-286.e13.
Petrone L, Petruccioli E, Vanini V, et al. A whole blood test to measure SARS-CoV-2-specific response in COVID-19 patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021;27(2):286.e7-286.e13.
Petrone, L., Petruccioli, E., Vanini, V., Cuzzi, G., Najafi Fard, S., Alonzi, T., Castilletti, C., Palmieri, F., Gualano, G., Vittozzi, P., Nicastri, E., Lepore, L., Antinori, A., Vergori, A., Caccamo, N., Cantini, F., Girardi, E., Ippolito, G., Grifoni, A., & Goletti, D. (2021). A whole blood test to measure SARS-CoV-2-specific response in COVID-19 patients. Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 27(2), e7-e13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.09.051
Petrone L, et al. A Whole Blood Test to Measure SARS-CoV-2-specific Response in COVID-19 Patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021;27(2):286.e7-286.e13. PubMed PMID: 33045370.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A whole blood test to measure SARS-CoV-2-specific response in COVID-19 patients. AU - Petrone,Linda, AU - Petruccioli,Elisa, AU - Vanini,Valentina, AU - Cuzzi,Gilda, AU - Najafi Fard,Saeid, AU - Alonzi,Tonino, AU - Castilletti,Concetta, AU - Palmieri,Fabrizio, AU - Gualano,Gina, AU - Vittozzi,Pietro, AU - Nicastri,Emanuele, AU - Lepore,Luciana, AU - Antinori,Andrea, AU - Vergori,Alessandra, AU - Caccamo,Nadia, AU - Cantini,Fabrizio, AU - Girardi,Enrico, AU - Ippolito,Giuseppe, AU - Grifoni,Alba, AU - Goletti,Delia, Y1 - 2020/10/10/ PY - 2020/07/23/received PY - 2020/09/26/revised PY - 2020/09/26/accepted PY - 2020/10/13/pubmed PY - 2021/2/26/medline PY - 2020/10/12/entrez KW - COVID-19 KW - IFN-γ KW - Immune response KW - Multiplex analysis KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - Serology response KW - Specific response KW - T-cell based tests KW - Whole blood SP - 286.e7 EP - 286.e13 JF - Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases JO - Clin Microbiol Infect VL - 27 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To examine whether specific T-cell-responses to SARS-CoV-2 peptides can be detected in COVID-19 using a whole-blood experimental setting, which may be further explored as a potential diagnostic tool. METHODS: We evaluated interferon (IFN)-γ levels after stimulating whole-blood with spike and remainder-antigens peptides megapools (MP) derived from SARS-CoV-2 sequences; interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17A, eotaxin, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IFN-γ, Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also evaluated. RESULTS: IFN-γ-response to spike and remainder-antigens MPs was significantly increased in 35 COVID-19 patients compared with 29 'no COVID-19' individuals (medians spike-MP: 0.26 vs 0, p = 0.0002; medians remainder-antigens-MP: 0.07 vs 0.02; p = 0.02). This response was detected independently of patients' clinical parameters. IFN-γ-response to SARS-CoV-2-unrelated antigens cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) was similar in COVID-19 compared with 'no COVID-19' individuals (median CMV: 3.46 vs 5.28, p = 0.16; median SEB: 12.68 vs 15.05; p = 0.1). In response to spike-MPs in COVID-19- compared with 'no COVID-19' -individuals, we found significant higher median of IL-2 (50.08 vs 0, p = 0.0018), IFN-γ (90.16 vs 0, p = 0.01), IL-4 (0.52 vs 0, p = 0.03), IL-13 (0.84 vs 0, p = 0.007) and MCP-1 (4602 vs 359.2, p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Immune response to SARS-CoV-2 peptides in a whole-blood assay is associated with COVID-19 and it is characterized by both Th1 and Th2 profile. This experimental approach may be useful for developing new T-cell based diagnostic tests for disease and vaccine settings. SN - 1469-0691 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33045370/A_whole_blood_test_to_measure_SARS_CoV_2_specific_response_in_COVID_19_patients_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1198-743X(20)30605-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -