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Measurement of filtration efficiencies of healthcare and consumer materials using modified respirator fit tester setup.
PLoS One. 2020; 15(10):e0240499.Plos

Abstract

During the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic there is unprecedented demand for personal protective equipment (PPE), especially N95 respirators and surgical masks. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to be transmitted via respiratory droplets from asymptomatic individuals has necessitated increased usage of both N95 respirators in the healthcare setting and masks (both surgical and homemade) in public spaces. These precautions rely on two fundamental principles of transmission prevention: particle filtration and droplet containment. The former is the focus of NIOSH N95 testing guidelines, and the latter is an FDA guideline for respirators and surgical masks. While studies have investigated droplet containment to provide guidance for homemade mask production, limited work has been done to characterize the filtration efficiency (FE) of materials used in home mask making. In this work, we demonstrate the low-cost (<$300) conversion of standard equipment used to fit-test respirators in hospital and industrial settings into a setup that measures quantitative FEs of materials based on NIOSH N95 guidelines, and subsequently measure FEs of materials found in healthcare and consumer spaces. These materials demonstrate significant variability in filtration characteristics, even for visually similar materials. We demonstrate a FE of 96.49% and pressure drop of 25.4 mmH20 for a double-layer of sterilization wrap used in surgical suites and a FE of 90.37% for a combination of consumer-grade materials. The excellent filtration characteristics of the former demonstrate potential utility for emergent situations when N95 respirators are not available, while those of the latter demonstrate that a high FE can be achieved using publicly available materials.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America. University of Illinois College of Medicine at Urbana, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America.Carle Illinois College of Medicine, Champaign, Illinois, United States of America.Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America.Carle Illinois College of Medicine, Champaign, Illinois, United States of America.University of Illinois College of Medicine at Urbana, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America. Carle Illinois College of Medicine, Champaign, Illinois, United States of America. Carle Foundation Hospital, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33048980

Citation

Long, Kenneth D., et al. "Measurement of Filtration Efficiencies of Healthcare and Consumer Materials Using Modified Respirator Fit Tester Setup." PloS One, vol. 15, no. 10, 2020, pp. e0240499.
Long KD, Woodburn EV, Berg IC, et al. Measurement of filtration efficiencies of healthcare and consumer materials using modified respirator fit tester setup. PLoS One. 2020;15(10):e0240499.
Long, K. D., Woodburn, E. V., Berg, I. C., Chen, V., & Scott, W. S. (2020). Measurement of filtration efficiencies of healthcare and consumer materials using modified respirator fit tester setup. PloS One, 15(10), e0240499. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240499
Long KD, et al. Measurement of Filtration Efficiencies of Healthcare and Consumer Materials Using Modified Respirator Fit Tester Setup. PLoS One. 2020;15(10):e0240499. PubMed PMID: 33048980.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Measurement of filtration efficiencies of healthcare and consumer materials using modified respirator fit tester setup. AU - Long,Kenneth D, AU - Woodburn,Elizabeth V, AU - Berg,Ian C, AU - Chen,Valerie, AU - Scott,William S, Y1 - 2020/10/13/ PY - 2020/07/23/received PY - 2020/09/29/accepted PY - 2020/10/13/entrez PY - 2020/10/14/pubmed PY - 2020/11/3/medline SP - e0240499 EP - e0240499 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 15 IS - 10 N2 - During the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic there is unprecedented demand for personal protective equipment (PPE), especially N95 respirators and surgical masks. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to be transmitted via respiratory droplets from asymptomatic individuals has necessitated increased usage of both N95 respirators in the healthcare setting and masks (both surgical and homemade) in public spaces. These precautions rely on two fundamental principles of transmission prevention: particle filtration and droplet containment. The former is the focus of NIOSH N95 testing guidelines, and the latter is an FDA guideline for respirators and surgical masks. While studies have investigated droplet containment to provide guidance for homemade mask production, limited work has been done to characterize the filtration efficiency (FE) of materials used in home mask making. In this work, we demonstrate the low-cost (<$300) conversion of standard equipment used to fit-test respirators in hospital and industrial settings into a setup that measures quantitative FEs of materials based on NIOSH N95 guidelines, and subsequently measure FEs of materials found in healthcare and consumer spaces. These materials demonstrate significant variability in filtration characteristics, even for visually similar materials. We demonstrate a FE of 96.49% and pressure drop of 25.4 mmH20 for a double-layer of sterilization wrap used in surgical suites and a FE of 90.37% for a combination of consumer-grade materials. The excellent filtration characteristics of the former demonstrate potential utility for emergent situations when N95 respirators are not available, while those of the latter demonstrate that a high FE can be achieved using publicly available materials. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33048980/Measurement_of_filtration_efficiencies_of_healthcare_and_consumer_materials_using_modified_respirator_fit_tester_setup_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240499 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -