Mesenchymal stem cell immunomodulation and regeneration therapeutics as an ameliorative approach for COVID-19 pandemics.Life Sci. 2020 Dec 15; 263:118588.LS
The severe acute respiratory syndrome-novel coronavirus mediated COVID-19 has been recently declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The primary target of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is the human lungs governed by the ACE-2 receptor of epithelial type II cells/endothelial cells, which promote modulation of the immune response of host cells through generating cytokine storm, inflammation, severe pneumonia symptoms, and secondary complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although numerous antiviral and anti-parasitic drugs are under clinical trials to combat this pandemic, to date, neither a specific treatment nor any successful vaccine has been established, urging researchers to identify any potential candidate for combating the disease. Mesenchymal stem cells own self-renewal, differentiation, homing, immunomodulation and remains unaffected by the coronavirus on the virtue of the absence of ACE-2 receptors, indicating that MSC's could be used an ameliorative approach for COVID-19. MSCs have shown to combat the disease via various pathways such as repairing the lung epithelial and endothelial cells, reducing hyperimmune response, maintaining the renin-angiotensin system. Although MSCs-based treatment approaches for COVID-19 is still under consideration with limited data, many human clinical trials of MSC's has been initiated to explore their potential for COVID 19 treatment. The current review summarizes and emphasizes on how MSC's modulate the immune response, can repair the lungs from the impact of the virus, and various aspects of MSC's as a remedial source for COVID-19, to provide better insight for biomedical researchers and for those who are fascinated by stem cells as a therapeutic approach.