Application of High Resolution Mass Spectrometric methods coupled with chemometric techniques in olive oil authenticity studies - A review.Anal Chim Acta. 2020 Oct 16; 1134:150-173.AC
Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO), the emblematic food of the Mediterranean diet, is recognized for its nutritional value and beneficial health effects. The main authenticity issues associated with EVOO's quality involve the organoleptic properties (EVOO or defective), mislabeling of production type (organic or conventional), variety and geographical origin, and adulteration. Currently, there is an emerging need to characterize EVOOs and evaluate their genuineness. This can be achieved through the development of analytical methodologies applying advanced "omics" technologies and the investigation of EVOOs chemical fingerprints. The objective of this review is to demonstrate the analytical performance of High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) in the field of food authenticity assessment, allowing the determination of a wide range of food constituents with exceptional identification capabilities. HRMS-based workflows used for the investigation of critical olive oil authenticity issues are presented and discussed, combined with advanced data processing, comprehensive data mining and chemometric tools. The use of unsupervised classification tools, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA), as well as supervised classification techniques, including Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structure-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), Counter Propagation Artificial Neural Networks (CP-ANNs), Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) and Random Forest (RF) is summarized. The combination of HRMS methodologies with chemometrics improves the quality and reliability of the conclusions from experimental data (profile or fingerprints), provides valuable information suggesting potential authenticity markers and is widely applied in food authenticity studies.